American Society between 1880-1920

By: Lexi Touchstone

The Bessemer Process

The Bessemer process was a new process that was a big role in industrialization. It was created by a British manufacturer named Henry Bessemer. This process injected air into motion iron to remove the carbon. This helped many factories and industrialists make products faster. It helped with many advances in building Americas industry. I think that this process was a great advancement in the early ages because it helped with the future and how many things were invented because of this process.
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Meat Inspection Act

In the late 1800s and early 1900s the meat factories were awful. All meat was very unsanitary and not well kept. After being exposed to the country by a book and catching President Roosevelt's attention, this act was passed. It was passed in 1906 and this act dictated strict cleanliness requirements for meat packers. It also was the creation of meat inspections. This made the meat safer and a much better industry. I think that this act was very important. The conditions of the factories were disgusting and something had to be done. The book that was written called "The Jungle" was a clever way to expose what was happening to food that americans were eating everyday. President Roosevelt did a great job ending this whenever he heard about what was going on.
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California Gold Rush

The California Gold Rush of 1849. One day a large amount of gold was found by James W. Marshall. The word of all of this gold quickly spread. It brought over 300,000 people to California. This was a huge part in industrialization because the gold rush was so huge and so many people became involved in gold mining. This brought so many people from around the country and from other countries. It was definetly
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Ellis Island

Ellis island was an immigration station along the coast of New York. Chinese immigrants were processed to enter the United States there. They had to pass an interview and prove that they were themselves. They also were questioned about the information about themselves and a health examination to see if they were sick.

Tenement Apartments

Tenement apartments were one of the popular housing situations for immigrants who had just moved to the United States. Multiple families would share a small one bedroom apartment. They sometimes had up to 16 people in one. It was very unsanitary and not a safe way to live.
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Chinese Exclusion Act

This act banned entry into the United States from Chinese people except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials. There were many Chinese people trying to enter the United States which angered Americans so thist act was passed. I think that this was wrong of America considering we had already let people from China into our country.
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Settlement House

Community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to local residents, especially immigrants. Mostly crowded and unsanitary. They were to teach immigrants what it was like to live in a neighborhood and take care of a home. They were taught basic skills on taking care of a home including cooking.
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Homestead Act

This act granted 160 acres of land to any american citizen who was the head or owner of their house. Passed by congress in 1862. In exchange, the people who moved in were required to pay a small fee and complete 5 years of residence before they had complete ownership of the land.
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Dawes Act

Passed in 1887, broke up reservations around the United states and gave some land to native Americans who's land was taken by Americans. This made a lot of americans move to Nebraska for land. I think this was a great opportunity to move citizens across the U.S. and more people to own land.
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Political Machines

Political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of other businesses. Offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support. Headed by a single boss or autocratic group.
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19th amendment

The amendment that gave all women in the U.S. The right to vote. It gave all Americans equal rights to vote. No one can be denied the right to vote in the U.S. Based off of their sex. Women fought for this right for many years. Many women were sent to jail over this and it took a long time for this amendment to be passed. As a woman i think that it is amazing how many women fought for us to have this right.
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Square Deal

Victimized workers that would receive progressive reforms sponsored by the Roosevelt administration. Roosevelt based it off of: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection.
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The Monroe Doctrine

The Monroe Doctrine was a U.S. foreign policy regarding domination of the American continent in 1823. It stated if other countries interfered with the states it would be viewed as aggression. I think that this policy set the United States standard as to how they viewed other countries views on our own country.

Yellow Journalism

A very exaggerated and dramatic form of writing. It was often used in newspapers exploiting people and making stories more than they were. People often believed the exaggerated stories written like this, which angered the people and things that the stories were about. Yellow Journalism in some way made some news in America worse. This exaggerated writing worried people and made drama across cities.
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Open Door Policy

Idea that all countries should trade freely across the seas in China and everyone should be treated the same. Ending fighting overseas would make free trade a lot better. Whenever there was not free trade it made trading very difficult. When ships would be traveling for trade any country could attack that ship just because there was no free trade overseas. I think that this trade was a very good idea. Having free trade stopped many problems with other countries.
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Zimmerman Note

Message sent from Germany to Mexico. They asked Mexico to team up with them and attack the United States. This angered the U.S. A lot. This angered the United States because they had decided to stay neutral and not join the war. They wanted to be on good terms with other countries and not against anyone. So when Germany sent this to Mexico it angered them. The U.S. had not been on bad terms with Mexico since the Spanish-American war. This was the main reason that the United States joined the war other than the fact that the Lusitania was sunk.

Selective Service Act

Required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service. All men between 18 and 25 were required to sign up for this act. The United States decided these ages because they needed men who could keep up and be healthy and in shape. This draft helped the U.S. military whenever they were deeply in need of men. I think that this draft was unfair in a way forcing people to serve for our country. Although I also see the benefits of this draft because it made our army stronger and without it we most likely would not have a military.
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Trench Warfare

Holes dug in the ground, where armies fought for mere yards of ground, continued for almost three years. These holes had different spots for each soldier to burrow down in and shoot at enemies from a distance. This helped armies shoot enemies before they got to their whole army. The conditions of the trenches were not good. Soldiers had to stay in them day and night. The nights were very cold and a lot of soldiers feet got frost bite and many men almost had to have their feet removed. In my opinion I think the trenches were a big advancement in our warfare. Except I think conditions were terrible and unfair to some soldiers. We should have had shifts where soldiers switched out so they never were too tired and to take care of themselves.
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