The Freudian Era

Karen Horney

Born on September 16, 1885 in Hamburg Germany, Karen Horney is best known for her creation of the theory of Neurosis.

Neurosis is a "psychic disturbance brought by fears and defenses against these fears and by attempts to find compromise solutions for conflicting tendencies" it is how people cope and have control over interpersonal issues that happen day to day.


Horney's Theory

-feelings and attitudes determined by culture

-deal with problems

-driven by emotional forces

-compulsive drives but are neurotic


Freud's Theory

-instinctual drives or object relationships determined biologically

-deny problems

-ego concept without executive powers.

-compulsive drives but not driven to neurosis.


Horney's theory is related to her personal life and how she dealt with her problems. Her idea of neurosis and psychoanalysis involves her inner conflicts is regarded as one of the best theories.

Alfred Adler

Born on February 7, 1870, Adler was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology.


Experience That Helped Him Develop His Theory

He was struggling in school and failing at math. The teacher suggested that young Adler be removed from school. But his father only scoffed at the teacher, letting the boy know how little he thought of the teacher's judgment.


Adler then became determined to excel and to show the teacher just how wrong he was. He was soon at the top of his class in mathematics. → Such experiences help shape Adler's theories of personality development, especially his belief that the most basic human drive is the striving from an initial state of inadequacy, or what he termed "inferiority", toward "superiority", or self-actualization.


Alder's Theory


He ultimately believed that people are focused on maintaining control over their lives. He believed in single "drive" or motivating force behind our behavior, claiming that the desire we have to fulfill our potentials becomes closer and closer to our ideals.


This theory is called Individual Psychology because he felt each person was unique and no previous theory applied to all people. Adler's theory included these four aspects: the development of personality, striving towards superiority, psychological health, and the unity of personality

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Carl Rogers

· Influential American psychologist who was one of the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology


· Considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research


· Designed a person-centered approach, which was his own unique approach to understanding personality and human relationships


· Found wide application in spheres of psychology such as psychotherapy and counseling


· His Learner-centered teaching focused on 4 main points:


1. A person cannot teach another person directly; a person can only facilitate another's learning” (Rogers)


This point emphasized the fact that we all exist in a constantly changing world of experience in which we are the center. Therefore, we can only react to external stimuli.


2. “A person learns significantly only those things that are perceived as being involved in the maintenance of or enhancement of the structure of self” (Roger)


Simply, this means that other facts that are relevant to us can be learned.


3. “Experience which, if assimilated, would involve a change in the organization of self, tends to be resisted through denial or distortion of symbolism”


This means that being open minded is essential to our learning. This open-mindedness has to be gently nudged in order to maximize efficiency.


4. The structure and organization of self appears to become more rigid under threats and to relax its boundaries when completely free from threat”


An open friendly environment in which trust is developed is essential to learning and in the classroom. Therefore, the less vulnerable a student feels, the more likely he will respond to learning.

Theory of Personality

Self Actualization: motivating force to achieving their full potential.

Real Self: What a person is capable of becoming in the perfect world.

Self Concept: A person's perception of themselves. (shaped by other's attitudes, social evaluation, life experiences)

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Carl Jung

  • Born in Switzerland in 1875, died on June 6, 1961

  • Father was a village pastor that Carl said he "saw hopelessly he was entrapped by the church and its theological teaching" in his autobiography

  • Jung's mother was said to have multiple personalities, one as just a pastor's wife

  • Jung viewed her as "unreliable", and she often had breakdowns and spoke in a voice of authority that was not her own

  • When Jung's father died, his mother told him "He died in time for you"

  • He grew up with 2 personalities (Number 1, and Number 2 respectively)

  • One was a normal boy, the other a dignified man of the past

  • Grew up with a tiny carved mannequin that he wrote messages to, didn't understand this behavior until later

  • When he was a schoolboy, he was knocked unconscious and got to miss school, continued to faint regularly to get out of school

  • Never planned on studying Psychiatrists because it was looked down upon during that day, but knew it was his calling after reading his psychology textbook and learning about personality diseases

  • Married Emma Rauschenbach,who came from a wealthy family in Switzerland and had 5 children, however had multiple open relationships with other women

  • Was drafted in World War I as an army doctor, eventually became a commandant


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Individuation-development of connection between ego and self. Ego is conscious and self is unconscious. Jung believed they were interconnected.

Introversion & Extroversion; inward oriented and outdoor oriented personalities. Introverts are more comfortable being alone and keeping emotions/thoughts inside. Extroverts are more comfortable with the world of objects and other people. No person is strictly introvert or extrovert.

Theory of type-

Jung found that people think, feel, and experience the world in different ways. Powerful at helping understand how people function.

Thinking-objective truth, judgement, and impersonal analysis

Feeling- focused on value, judgments of good vs. bad and right vs. wrong as opposed to decision making according to the criteria of logic or efficiency like thinking

Sensation-direct sense experience, perception of details and concrete facts; what one can see, touch, or smell

Intuition-comprehending perceptions in terms of possibilities, past experience, future goals and unconscious processes


Personal Unconscious-comes from individuals past. Corresponds to Freud's concept of unconscious. Composed of memories that are painful or repressed as well as memories that are unimportant and have been dropped from conscious awareness. It also holds personality traits that have never come to consciousness.

Collective Unconscious-boldest and most controversial concept. Jung identifies the collective or transpersonal unconscious as the center of all psychic material that does not come from personal experience. Its contents and image appear to be shared with people of all time periods and all cultures. We are already born with ideas of the world but our culture can define it.

Theory of Symbols-images represent concepts that we cant fully define or comprehend. Symbols always have unclear connotations.