Kendal Harler

What is a concussion?

A concussion is temporary unconsciousness caused by a blow to the head. The term is also used loosely of the aftereffects such as confusion or temporary incapacity.


Signs and symptoms of a concussion may include:

  • Headache or a feeling of pressure in the head
  • Temporary loss of consciousness
  • Confusion or feeling as if in a fog
  • Amnesia surrounding the traumatic event
  • Dizziness or "seeing stars"
  • Ringing in the ears
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Slurred speech
  • Delayed response to questions
  • Appearing dazed
  • Fatigue

What causes a concussion?

A violent blow to your head and neck or upper body can cause your brain to slide back and forth forcefully against the inner walls of your skull.

Sudden acceleration or deceleration of the head, resulting from certain events such as a car crash or being violently shaken, also can cause brain injury.

These injuries affect brain function, usually for a brief period, resulting in signs and symptoms of concussion

Field Treatment

You should remove the athlete from the game, consult with a physician, and notify the parents. The athlete should be cleared by the physician before returning to play.

Hospital Treatment

Consult physician before returning to play.


Wear proper head protection that fits (helmet), mouth-guards, and perform exercises that will strengthen the muscles in your neck.


A 2011 study of U.S. high schools with at least one certified athletic trainer (AT) on staff found that concussions accounted for nearly 15% of all sports-related injuries reported to ATs and which resulted in a loss of at least one day of play

Another 2011 study reported that, for all athletes, concussion rates in high school athletics have increased by 16% annually from the 1997-1998 to 2007-2008 academic years, possibly resulting from an increase in injury or diagnosis