The Scientific Revolution
By: Marcel Alfred
What was the change ?
Who were the people associated with the change ?
Sir Isaac Newton
On January 4, 1643 Isaac Newton was born in the hamlet of Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire England. He was the only son of a prosperous local farmer also named Isaac Newton who died three months before he was born. A premature baby born tiny and weak, Newton was not expected to survive. When he was 3 years old his mother Hannah Ayscough Newton remarried a well-to-do minister Barnabas Smith and went to live with him, leaving young Newton with his maternal grandmother. He was a significant man because of his accomplishments. Isaac Newton created the three laws of physics: Law 1-The first law says that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion with the same direction and speed. Law 2-the second law says that acceleration of an object produced by a net applied force is directly related to magnitude of the force. Law 3-The third law says that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Forces are found in pairs.
Born in the Italian city of Pisa in 1564 Galileo claimed a number of discoveries during his lifetime studying time intervals, motion and first theorizing that regardless of their weight objects fell at the same speed in a vacuum. A brilliant scientific mind in 17th century Florence Galileo was forced to renounce his work and writings concerning the theories of Nicolaus Copernicus who had suggested that the sun not Earth was the center of the universe according to the University of Missouri Kansas City School of Law Web site on Galileo.
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) was a mathematician and astronomer who proposed that the sun was stationary in the center of the universe and the earth revolved around it. Disturbed by the failure of Ptolemy's geocentric model of the universe to follow Aristotle's requirement for the uniform circular motion of all celestial bodies and determined to eliminate Ptolemy's equant, an imaginary point around which the bodies seemed to follow that requirement, Copernicus decided that he could achieve his goal only through a heliocentric model. He thereby created a concept of a universe in which the distances of the planets from the sun bore a direct relationship to the size of their orbits. At the time Copernicus's heliocentric idea was very controversial; nevertheless, it was the start of a change in the way the world was viewed, and Copernicus came to be seen as the initiator of the Scientific Revolution.
Sir Isaac Newton
Kepler is the man who solved the final mathematical problems that were preventing accurate prediction of the movement of the planets. He was a German who studied under Tycho Brahe the famous Danish astronomer.
Kepler was a very complicated man a believer in astrology whose mother was tried for witchcraft. He fought poverty for most of his life and certainly never enjoyed the benefits of scientific fame. He was a brilliant thinker however and a masterful mathematician. Kepler was the first to have a law named after him since the ancient Greeks a tribute to Johannes himself but also a mark of the times that people believed they were accomplishing feats as great as the ancients had managed. The most significant for our narrative was Kepler's description of how a body might move in an elliptical orbit. The ellipse was the key to making Copernicus' system work. Kepler had inherited the careful observations of Brahe and these allowed him to work out the mathematics. What he discovered was that a body moved faster as it moved through one end of the ellipse than it did when moving along the other end.