The Scientific Revolution

By: Marcel Alfred

What was the change ?

The scientific Revolution was a new way of thinking about the natural world. A development which arose in the early sixteenth century with the cosmological discoveries of Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus going against the current belief that the Earth was stationary and at the center of the universe hypothesized a Sun-centered universe with a moveable Earth. Further discoveries by Johannes Kepler confirmed the second of these hypotheses and added two other discoveries planetary orbits in the shape of ellipses and an explanation of the varying speeds of the planets as they orbited fastest near the Sun slowest the more outward a planet is from the Sun. In connection to these discoveries the movement of the planets the maintenance of their orbits the basic mathematical structure of the universe and gravity all came to be understood.

Who were the people associated with the change ?

The people that are associated with the change would be the people who invented the telescopes and came up with theories. he telescope was one of the primary instruments of the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century. The events fueled by Galileo led to continued improvements in the telescope and they were made stronger through different combinations of lenses and mirrors. Eventually scientists had devices powerful enough to see Jupiter and they were also able to verify Galileo’s claims about Venus. In 1611 Johannes Kepler modified the telescope so that images were viewed right side up instead of upside down.

Johannes Kepler

Kepler is the man who solved the final mathematical problems that were preventing accurate prediction of the movement of the planets. He was a German who studied under Tycho Brahe the famous Danish astronomer.

Kepler was a very complicated man a believer in astrology whose mother was tried for witchcraft. He fought poverty for most of his life and certainly never enjoyed the benefits of scientific fame. He was a brilliant thinker however and a masterful mathematician. Kepler was the first to have a law named after him since the ancient Greeks a tribute to Johannes himself but also a mark of the times that people believed they were accomplishing feats as great as the ancients had managed. The most significant for our narrative was Kepler's description of how a body might move in an elliptical orbit. The ellipse was the key to making Copernicus' system work. Kepler had inherited the careful observations of Brahe and these allowed him to work out the mathematics. What he discovered was that a body moved faster as it moved through one end of the ellipse than it did when moving along the other end.