The advancements of 1880 - 1920
By: Sam Lowe
Over 20 million immigrants came to the US in search of opportunity and jobs . Along the same time period Child labor was fully legal and laws regarding it where lax . These children, immigrant workers, and residents were expected to work with harsh conditions and long hours . But what was the effect had by these prerequisites? as child labor began to be publicly questioned , reform movements and unions combined into one cause , to better the harsh conditions of the day today job and to limit the age at which one had to work .
1. Women's rights reforms and unions also came along in the late 19th century and began having an actual fact in the early 20th century . When all of these causes came together, they presented enough incentive for the government to change rules on the work conditions for men women and children .
As the peoples interests became more and more important overall parties begin to rise to appease those needs .
2. The populist movement being among the first of these two arise in the 1890s and the progressive movement arising in the early 1900s. The populist movement was created by farmers that felt that they were being treated unfairly by banks machinery manufacturers and railroads . This movement was made because of the need for a voice in the government representing the common man .
3. Another political movement rose called the progressives , this group was made up of more urban people in the middle class that believed in a less lazzieh faire approach and believe that the government should be more involved in corporations and setting their boundaries.
Not so much a specific group, muckrakers began to arise in this era. These muckrakers were a kind of vigilante behind a pen, exploiting harsh conditions of jobs and corruption .
When the public would learn about the horrible things that were going on around them, reforms and movements would arise to counteract them and to push the government to do something about them.
There's more information about these reforms at http://www.westga.edu/~hgoodson/Politics%20and%20Reform.htm
In the late 19th century, immigration took a steep rise with over 20 million immigrants coming into the U.S. This inundation of newcomers caused prejudice and outrage amazing among nativists, soon after the start the so called natives started putting up signs such as the one shown below as a sort of repellent.
- The newcomers , outcasted and hated , began to form unions such as the Jewish labor movement "yiddisher arbeter bund". Cultures like these became densely populated into smaller areas often next to each other to where they mixed.
- In 1900 the workmen's circle is made to help Yiddish culture and work unions.
- According to http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/important-events-of-urbanization , in 1882 January 1st, the Chinese exclusion act was established to slow the flow of immigrants.
As rural living became less commonplace, innovation and industry were putting urban living on the rise. Along with the steep incline in immigration the white population was also on a growth spurt According to https://cascourses.uoregon.edu/geog471/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/WardImmigration.pdf.
According to https://cougarhistory.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/hist-112-lecture-05-the-urbanization-of-america-1880-1920-compatibility-mode.pdf. Mass transit and transportation were among the benefits of urban living. Things such as trolleys helped people get to their destinations in a scenic route.
Along with benefits though , the city dwellers suffered under political machines; members of political parties that were in charge of advertising their policies in cities. These political machines often bullied and pestered the local civilians to vote for their campaign.
Another cultural change was the way we built things. This was because of the growing steel, oil and mining industries.
In 1890, Christians became part of this movement with the coming of the "social gospel" or the belief that one should help others like a mission trip inside the U.S.
Progressivism even went on to become the leading factor for the creation of muckrakers, uncovering corruption for the good of society . Ida Tarbell is among these, she uncovered secrets about the standard oil co.
1. 1898- U.S. Annexes Hawaii-https://www.boundless.com/u-s-history/textbooks/boundless-u-s-history-textbook/race-empire-and-culture-in-the-gilded-age-1870-1900-21/war-empire-and-an-emerging-american-world-power-164/american-imperialism-896-3410/
2. Colonization of Puerto Rico
3. Colonization of Philippines