By: Namratha M. and Anusha M.
- carbon dioxide
- sugar (starch)
- Carbon dioxide and water are converted into sugar through chemical reactions that occur in the thylakoid of the chloroplasts of plant cells only.
- Carbon dioxide enters the plant through the stomata, the holes in the bottom of the leaf allowing carbon dioxide to enter the plant and oxygen to leave the plant.
- Water enters the plant from roots, and takes the water to leaves through the xylum in a capillary action.
- Phloem takes sugar to the rest of the plant.
Steps of Photosynthesis:
- Energy is captured from sunlight in the thylakoid membrane. Energy is produced in this step.
- Water is broken apart, ATP is produced, and oxygen is released in a light reaction. This step occurs in the thylakoid. Hydrogen is produced, oxygen is released, and ATP is made.
- (Calvin Cycle) ATP energizes the production of sugars in the stroma of the chloroplast. Carbohydrates are produced in this stage.
How Plants get the Energy:
- light energy is absorbed by the pigments, known as chlorophyll, in the thylakoid of the chloroplast.
- energy that is absorbed will split water into hydrogen and oxygen during the light dependent reactions.
- the next set of reactions occur in the stoma are are light-independent reactions, also known as the Calvin Cycle.
- ATP provides the energy to run this light-independent reaction
Cellular Respiration: Aerobic Respiration
- Carbon dioxide
- Cellular respiration breaks down sugars.
- Chemical reactions occur inside of the mitochondria.
- Cellular respiration uses the mitochondria to facilitate the process.
- The energy source of aerobic cellular respiration is glucose.
- Blood drops off carbon dioxide and picks oxygen which is taken to the cells. This is the start of cellular respiration.
- Glucose is absorbed from the food in our small intestine.
- Inside the small intestine. we have small finger-like structures called villi. The glucose is absorbed by the villi and the villi enters the blood stream. Glucose is then transported by our blood to all the cells in our bodies.
- Carbon dioxide comes from the break down of glucose (into pyruvates).
- The oxygen of the reactant side forms the water of the product side.
- 6 molecules of water are created.
Steps of Aerobic Cellular Respiration:
- Glycolysis: glucose is the energy entering this stage. Energy is transferred between the energy carriers and is stored in 2 ATP by adding phosphates to ADP. The breakdown of glucose into pyruvates occurs in this stage as well. 2 ATP is exiting this stage.
- Kreb's Cycle: the pyruvates made during glycolysis are entering this stage as energy. The energy in this stage helps with the breakdown of pyruvates and makes carbon dioxide and 2 ATP. This stage is also referred to as the Citric Acid Cycle.
- Electron Transport Chain (ETC): the energy entering this stage are the electron carriers. (NADH and FADH2) The electrons and protons cross the membrane storing energy in ATP's as they cross by adding phosphates to ADP. 32 ATP leaves this stage.
Cellular Respiration: Anaerobic Respiration
- Carbon dioxide
- Lack of oxygen causing the necessity of anaerobic respiration.
- Anaerobic processes are needed to continue the process of glycolysis for the formation of ATP's.
- Lactic acid fermentation: mainly in muscle cells, 2 ATP is produced, occurs in the cell's cytoplasm, glucose is the main energy source.
- Alcoholic fermentation: yeast goes through this process, occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell, 2 ATP is produced, glucose is the main energy source.
Cellular Respiration Vs. Photosynthesis: Similarities and Differences
- both produce ATP
- both require energy for the process to occur
- in both processes, the electron transport chain pumps protons across the membrane
- sunlight is not required in cellular respiration while it is needed in photosynthesis
- cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria while photosynthesis occurs in the thylakoid of the cholorplast
- in cellular respiration, oxygen is absorbed and carbon dioxide is released, while in photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is absorbed and oxygen is released
- cellular respiration is the breakdown of food, while photosynthesis is the production of food
- cellular respiration occurs in all living organisms and photosynthesis occurs in plants and bacteria
"Photosynthesis." Photosynthesis. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2015.
Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2015.
McDowell, Michelle. "Photosynthesis." December 2015. PowerPoint presentation.
McDowell, Michelle. "Cellular Respiration". December 2015. PowerPoint presentation.