Read to discover about Cartier and the finding of Canada

Charlotte Dykes

NWR Series

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Table of Contents

  • Early Life: p.1
  • First Voyage:P.2
  • Second Voyage:P.3
  • Hard Winter:P.4
  • After Jacques Cartier:P.5
  • Glossary:P.6

Jacques Cartier

Early Life

Jacques Cartier was born in 1491 on a peninsula(A form of land that juts out into the water and the sea surrounds all sides but one)called Brittany in France (also knowen as S.t Malo) that was ruled by the time by king Francis the first.Almost a year after his birth Christopher Columbus found the Americas and grew very wealthy so other European rulers sent their men to do the same.The people Jacques Cartier lived among (they were called Bretons) depended on the sea, living almost all but one side in water their whole lives.Cartier loved the mountains as a kid and Brittany was focused on fishing and so he soon became a navigator in search of the Northwest passage.


First Voyage:

Admiral Philippe de Brion, of the French navy a ranged for a voyage but Cartier was known for his navigator skills so he ended up leading the men in two boats.First Cartier stopped on a island off the coast and sailed through a narrow water way between new found land and the Canadian mainland into the Gulf of S.t Lawrence and claimed many lands for France.He also marked a land on the norther shore of the bay on Gaspe peninsula.The native people who already lived there were called Hurons and lived in a village called Stadacona with their Chief Donnacona. The Huron called their village Kanata but Cartier thought they meant the whole land so that's how Canada got it's name.Jacques Cartier wanted to set up the wooden cross to clame the land for France but Donnacona wanted not of it on the land but Cartier said that it was to help find the same spot again so he let him do so but later Cartier made sure to take Donnacona's sons Domagaya and Taignoagny back to France with him.Back at France the brothers must of learned french because they told Cartier of a river with no end so Cartier told the king that that must be the Northwest passage and so King Francis the First arranged another voyage to Canada.


Second Voyage

May,19 1535 Cartier began the next voyage with three ships the Grande Hermine,the Petite Hermine,and the Emerillon also with the two brothers from Kanata he also named the Gulf S.t Lawrence because it was the day of S.t Lawrence when the found the gulf when the brothers returned to their village they told their father that Cartier and his men were going to go into the kingdom of Saguenay which was supposed to be filled with jewels and gold but Donnacona was not pleased to hear this and put on a show when Cartier was about to sail as devils to show that on the land was evil was on that land but Cartier did not listen and ended up sailing up river anyway.October 2, they got off on the huge island where many people welcomed him with a feast and dancing.After all the fuss they were shown their town Hochelaga which Mont Real hung over.The Hochelaga and the French men did not speak in the same manner but were friendly towards each-other. But know one knew who the Hochelaga were.


The Hard Winter

Cartier and his crew went back to Stadacona to spend the winter in their wooden tent but sadly unprepared for Canada's winter was much harsher and stronger winter then France's light ones.But the cold didn't kill 1/4 of the men it was scurvy that got them.Scurvy a terrible disease where your teeth fall out due to your gums swelling,then your blood vessels tear and blood leaks out till you die of blood loss.This was caused by lack of vitamin C.But before all the men could die out a some say that Donnacona's son Domagaya told them to make a tea from needles and bark of a white cedar tree that could cure scurvy and so it did saving 3/4 of the men when spring came Cartier again took seven Indians back to France Donnacona's sons and Donnacona himself among them.The rich food and weird surroundings killed all of the Indians except one little girl.After what Cartier did no white man shall be welcome in Stadacona again.


After Jacques Cartier

Jacques Cartier never got any riches or gold nor found the Northwestern passage but for he had gained Canada but a man named Samule de Chaplain really made a place for the colonists to settle in for Jacques Cartier died in 1557.He established a colonie called Quebec and later found were furs that Cartier had not seen for he had only wished for rock and stones but the fur is the wealth that brought the Europeans to Canada.



Peninsula:A form that juts into the water and is surrounded by the sea in all sides but one

Navigator: A person who shows the crew the way on the open sea

Scurvy: A sickness that makes your gums swell up and make your teeth fall out and your blood vessels tear so you would bleed to death.This sickness is due to no Vitamin C

White cedar tree: A tree that is like a small evergreen and has scaly like leaves

*The other underlined and bold words were names or villages or Huron names that I thought you

might want to pay attention too.


Works Cited