BLOOD

By Brittany Ciezki

Other Blood Characteristics

Components of Blood

  • Plasma- 55%
  • Erythrocytes- 45%
  • Leukocytes- <1%
  • Platelets- <1%

How much blood in the body?

  • Male- 5-6 Liters
  • Female- 4-5 Liters

Where is blood produced in the body?

The blood is produced in the red bone marrow.

What controls the production of blood in the body?

  • Kidneys

-Produces Erythropioietin to stimulate the bone marrow to produce blood cells.

Plasma

What does it look like and it's characteristics?

  • Characteristics

-Plasma proteins

-90% water

-Helps maintain blood flow

  • Looks

-Pale

-yellow

What is the function of plasma and how does it help our body maintain homeostasis?

  • Function

-Help blood to clot

-Help transport substances through blood

-maintain homeostasis

  • Homeostasis

-Plasma helps maintain homeostasis by keeping cell contents in and foreign materials out.

Why are people paid to donate plasma?

  • They spend 2 hours in a facility
  • typically twice a week
  • paid as compensation

How does this process work?

- Spins really fast

- Separates the red blood, white blood, and platelets from each other

- Extracts white blood cells from the other cells

Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)

What do they look like? Characteristics.

  • Characteristics

-Red

-Hollowed middle

-Round

-No nucleus

-Survives up to 120 days in bloodstream

What is the function? How do they maintain homeostasis?

  • Function

-Transporting oxygen and nutrients to lungs and tissues

-Forming blood clots to prevent excess blood loss

-Certain cells fight infection

-Brings waste to kidneys and liver to filter and clean the blood

-Regulate body temperature

What is a hematocrit test and how does it work?

  • What is it?

-Indicates whether you have too few or too many red blood cells

  • How does it work?

1. Take blood

2. Put into centrifuge

3. Looks at graph-like sheet to determine what percentage of RBC is there

What is a hemoglobin test? What is the importance of hemoglobin in the blood?

  • What is it?

-Measures the amount of hemoglobin in blood

  • Importance

-Is responsible for transporting oxygen from lungs to the body

Conditions

  • Anemia

- Too few of healthy blood cells.

  • Iron Deficiency

- Too few healthy red blood cells due to little iron in the body.

  • Hemolytic Anemia

- Red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the bloodstream before normal life span.

  • Hemorrhagic Anemia

- Resulting directly from loss of blood.

  • Sickle Cell Anemia

- A group of disorders that cause red blood cells to become misshapen and break down.

  • Pernicious Anemia

- Decrease in red blood cells because the body cant absorb vitamin B12.

What is Polycythemia?

  • Causes

-Abnormalities in red blood cell production

-Hypoxia

-Sleep apnea

-Certain tumors

  • Treatment

-Stay hydrated

**Depends on what caused it in the first pace**

Donating blood

  • The process?

1. Cleanse area and insert needle

2. Takes about 8-10 minutes to donate

**Donates approximately one pint of blood**

  • How often can it be done?

-Minimum of 56 days between donations

  • How is it used? Top percentages

-Surgically 30%

-Hematology 18%

-Gastrointestinal bleeding 11%

-Anemia 30%

-Maternity 6%

-Other 5%

http://www.blood.co.uk/about-blood/how-blood-is-used/

White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)

What do they look like? Characteristics.

  • Characteristics

-White

-Spherical

- Nucleus

What is the function? How do they help maintain homeostasis?

  • Function

- Involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

  • Homeostasis

- Fights infections to keep the body healthy and balanced.

What are the 5 types

  • Neutrophils

-Matured (developed) cell

- Contains enzymes that digest microorganisms

  • Lymphocytes

- Immune resposes

- B cell

- T cell

  • Monocytes

- Can divide

-Highly phagocytic

  • Eosinophils

- Primarily found in allergic reactions

- Releases toxins to kill off invaders

  • Basophils

- Contains histamines and serotonin

Conditions

  • Leukopenia

- Shortage of white blood cells in the system

  • Leukemia

- Cancer of white blood cell

  • Mononucleosis

- "Kissing disease"

- increase of lymphocytes

  • Multiple Myeloma

- Cancer of plasma cells

Platelets (Thrombocytes)

What do they look like? Characteristics.

  • Shaped like a lens
  • No nucleus
  • In blood smears, are purple/dark blue colored

What is the function? How do they help maintain homeostasis?

  • Function

- Clots blood directed to an injury.

  • Homeostasis

- Working with plasma protein fibrinogen to form a blood clot.

Events that occur during hemostasis...

**Process of stopping bleeding at the site of interruption**
  • Events

- The vessels constrict to reduce blood flow.

- Platelets stick to the vessel wall around the injury.

- Enzymatic reactions occur involving coagulating proteins.

- Fibrin is then produced to form a hemostatic plug.

What is hemophilia and how is it treated?

  • What is it?

- A condition in which the blood doesn't clot properly to make a person bleed excessively. Could become severe even from a slight cut.

  • Treatment

-Clotting factor concentrations

--- Made from human blood

--- Blood is treated to prevent the spread

-Recombinant clotting factor

--- Are not made form human blood

--- Typically given to children

Blood thinners

  • Coumadin or Warfarin

- Vitamin K dependent

  • Heparin

- Clots before, during, or after surgery

  • Aspirin

- Treats pain, fever, and inflammation