Assignment #2: Classifying Colonies

Jackie Malish period 5

Jamestown

1) First permanent British North American colony-- established first

2) 1607-- year the colony was established

3) Chesapeake bay-- climate was hot, humid, and swampy and not ideal for most crops

4) Starvation, disease, malaria problems-- many died; life expectancy was very short; "starving time" led to cannibalism; smallpox, influenza, measles

5) John Smith-- diplomatically organizes men into working, creates a system of order

6) John Rolfe--brings over the major crop of tobacco; starts plantation economy and eventually leads to slavery

7) Founded by joint stock company-- Virginia company; group of people put forth money for the venture; wanted business and gold

8) House of Burgesses 1619-- first representative government in N. America; basic structure of house and senate

9) Virginia Company charter-- guaranteed colonists the same rights as Englishmen

10) Peace treaty of 1646-- removed Powhatans from their original land

Massachusetts Bay

1) Puritans-- wanted to escape persecution from the Church of England

2) Separatists-- extremist group of Puritans

3) Mayflower Compact-- 1620; pilgrims signed document while on ship to set up a democracy for the new land

4) Friendly relationship-- relied on natives to help harvest the land

5) Farming-- help from Squanto to get accustomed to the land

6) Winter-- first winter was difficult to grow crops

7) Thanksgiving-- shared first harvest pickings with the Indians

8) John Winthrop-- first governor of MA; had a calling to lead

9) Salem Witch Trials-- paranoia led to killing of those thought to practice witch craft

10) Sir Ferdinando Gorges-- went on to establish Maine colony

Pennsylvania

1) William Penn-- Founder and leader of the Quakers; wealthy Englishman

2) Quakers-- refused to pay taxes to support Church of England

3) Tolerance-- because they were pacifists, Quakers were not violent towrds other groups

4) Liberal-- ideal acceptance of all, open environment

5) Friendly Indians-- pacifist nature kept friendly relationships with native peoples

6) Breadbasket-- grew lots of wheat

7) Holy Experiment-- establish as a place to govern while following religion

8) Pamphlets-- William Penn advertised the colony to attract people

9) No predestination-- left everything up to God and a man could not tell you about your conscious

10) Representatives-- assembly was elected by landowners


Maryland

1) Lord Baltimore--was granted charter to establish colony

2) Toleration Act of 1649-- granted tolerance to all Christians; first religious freedom act, restricted those who did not believe in Jesus

3) Proprietary colony-- elites distributed land in a feudal relationship

4) Civil war-- 1655 violence between Puritans and Jesuits

5) Land given to Catholics-- relatives of Lord Baltimore given land to stay in power

6) Friendly Indians-- gave colonists land and corn

7) House of Delegates-- upper was governor and council; lower followed Parliment rules

8) Tobacco-- plantation set up relied heavily on indentured servants, then transition to African slaves

9) Healthier-- better climate than Jamestown; no starving; disease wipeouts

10) Haven for Catholics-- wanted to avoid more persecution by Protestants

Georgia

1) Late start-- founded 126 years after Virginia and 52 years after Pennsylvania

2) James Ogelthorpe-- philanthropist who put in his own money to support Georgia

3) Buffer state-- divided Spanish Florida, French Louisiana and the Carolinas

4) Debtors-- safe place for those who were supposed to be in prison

5) Slavery-- at first resisted slavery altogether, but plantation economy led to large growth

6) Tolerance-- all Christians except Catholics were free

7) Savannah-- biggest port in Georgia for trading

8) Unhealthy climate-- hot and humid; good for only certain crops

9) Silk and Wine-- unique exports that Georgia offered

10) Plantations-- climate led to plantation economy which increased slavery