World History Final Exam Review
June 5, 2015
Innovative Scientists and Inventors
Francis Bacon - Promoter of Scientific Method. Scientists should observe the world, gather info, then draw conclusions: Experimental/Empiricism Method.
Johannes Kepler - Tycho Brahe's assistant. German mathematician and astronomer. Three Laws of Planetary Motion.
Nicholas Copernicus - Heliocentric Theory
James Watt - Steam Engine with Matthew Boulton
Richard Arkwright - "Pioneer" of factory system to produce textiles. Water frame to drive spinning wheels.
Eli Whitney - Cotton Gin removing seeds from the cotton. The product skyrocketed.
Henry Bessemer - Bessemer Process. "Age of Steel" signifys the use of steel for over 150 years primarily.
Causes of the French Revolution
•The Enlightenment for Government Reformation.
•Louis XVI's reign being ineffective.
•Arguments between bourgeoisie and aristrocratic parties.
•Economic hardships caused by food shortages, leading toward unrest.
The Three Estates (Old Regimine)
Second Estate - Nobility (Dosagreed with Enlightenment ideas)
Third Estste - Bourgeoisie, Peasants, Merchants (Majority taxed; determined to wield power)
Significant Events of French Revolution
•France was removed from its small group of elite leaders, establishing a democratic leadership.
•Many rumors were spread during this time, sparking the storming (fall) of the Bastille.
•Maximeilen Robospierre tried to gain control, but Reign of Terror had many executions.
What contributed to Napolean's failure in Russia, which Hitler also experienced in his failure invading Russia?
•The Peninsular War in 1808 was intended to get Portugal to accept the Continental System. Nationalism in Spain, France and elsewhere became Napolean's weakness.
•The Invasion of Russia in 1812 was his worst mistake of all. The Russian czar stopped selling France gain with interest in Poland.
-Napolean INVADES Russia. All European Powers had declared war against Napolean at this point, leading him to surrender the throne.
Ideas/Concepts Within Thinkers
Karl Marx - Idea of Marxism, which capitalism will be overcome by communism. Economically, class struggle for historical change. "Haves" (Communists) and "Have-Nots" (Proletariats)
Voltaire - Used satire within publications, making French laws. Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious beliefs and speech.
Locke - Beleived that people could learn from experience and improve themselves. They had the natural ability to govern themselves and look after the welfare of society. Believed in Natural Rights, or the belief that people are naturally born with life, liberty and property.
Impacts of Enlightenment - 1700s-1800s
Philosophers believed that people could only reason to all aspects of life.
Worldwide Impact of American Revolution
•The Constitution and Bill of Rights changed viewpoints on government entirely.
•Inspired reform in France. Enlightenment ideas put into practice.
Latin American Leaders
•Simon Bolivar was a wealth Venezuelan creole/military leader. Exiled twice by Venezuela. Met Jose de San Martin who ultimately led the Spanish towards independence.
Similarity of the Scientific Revolution and The Enlightenment
Why did the Industrial Revolution Begin in Great Britain First?
•Colonies and Markets for Manufactured Goods.
•Extensive natural resources for power:
-Water and Coal for fueling machines
-Iron Ore for Construction
-Rivers for island transportation
-Harbors for Trade
What Social Impacts were left by the Industrial Revolution?
•Mines Act prevented children from working underground.
•Ending of Child Labor Movements.
Lenin's Promise and Slogan - Bolshevik Revolution
Why did Europeans "scramble for Africa" in the late 1800?
•Markets for needed goods.
•Control of water routes for strategy.
•Racism as a rationalization, as in Africa
•Europeans feared war.
Stalin's Five-Year Plan and Soviet Union's Economy
Similarities and Differences of Nazi, Fascist and Communist regimes post WWI.
Differences: Nazis were biggest party of the three. Communists had government run everything and seized private property.
What new technologies were introduced in World War I?
•[Tactical] Planes for air warfare.
Why did the U.S. Decide to enter both World Wars?
Treaty of Versailles
How did the U.S. government respond to the Great Depression?
Examples of Appeasement
What happened to Japanese Americans during World War II?
What occurred at the Nuremberg Trials?
Who used Blitzkrieg?
Who made up the Axis and Allied Powers?
Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Soviet Union and United States
Significance of the Battles of…
Midway - American's Turning Point with the Japanese.
Bulge - Hitler faces war on two fronts. Germans unconditionally surrender the war.
Stalingrad - Soviet's never give in from the invasion, causing the Germans to surrender due to starvation.
Operation Barbarossa: Hitler surprises Stalin by invading the Soviet Union, shocking them! Germans pursue 500+ miles inland, burning any town in sight. The Germans may have been outnumbered, but they were well-prepared, proving to be a formidable foe.
The U.S. strategy in the Pacific during the last six months of fighting was...?
What was Truman's Justification for dropping the Atomic Bomb?
These World War II Events occurred in Chornological Order:
Rise of Nazism
Germany Invasion of Poland
Germany Invasion of Soviet Union
Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
Allies Invasion of Europe on D-Day
Atomic Bombs dropped in Japan
The Cold War
After the conclusion of World War II, the leaders of the United States and Soviet Union insisted upon different viewpoints within society. Each country split sharply after the Yalta Conference; each side had their own issues.
-The United States suffered 400,000 deaths, but no cities were damaged.
-The Soviet's had 50 times the number of casualties as cities were demolished everywhere. Each of these results, as well as political and economic differences, affected the powerhouses relations with each other. These opinions would later shock the world with the possibility of another war.
Examples of Containment
With the support of the Truman Doctrine for its support of anti-Communist nations, and the Marshall Plan for its aid to needy European countries, the Containment policy easily spread across the developing Latin America, excluding Cuba.
What was the purpose of the Berlin Wall?
Specific Cold War Events in Chronological Order:
Korean War - Divided Korea at the 38th Parallel. U.S. eventually pulls out from the South, leaving the Soviet's and North to coexist. The government was truly tested as a ceasefire is currently persistant.
Vietnam War - Ho Chi Minh wants independence; tries communist support. French grant independence in 1941 after surrendering to what seemed like a futile battle. Eisenhower expresses the domino theory. Vietcong gains power, assassinating Diem as he backs out, which prompts the U.S. to send in troops without a declaration of war. Protests erupt revolving American involvement, causing Nixon to withdraw. Northern Vietnam later overruns the south by 1975, imposing strict control over the south.
Bay of Pigs - CIA trains anti-Castro Cuban exiles. When preparing to invade Cuba, they lacked the promised air support by the Kennedy Administration, humiliating the United States.
Cuban Missle Crisis - Soviet's secretly build missiles on Cuba, but an American plan spots the missles. The U.S. declares a naval blockade around Cuba, bringing Brinkmanship into effect! The war seemed so close...
What was the purpose of the League of Nations, United Nations, Warsaw Pact, and NATO?
U.N. - Intended to protect members against aggression.
NATO - Defensive military alliance of being against Soviet's.
Warsaw Pact - Founded in response to the threat of NATO.
What was decided at the Geneva Conference regarding Vietnam?
What is the significance of Jerusalem?
•Modern Jews pray at the Western Wall, which is the only remaining piece of the Second Temple that was eradicated by the Romans in 70 AD.
Result due to overthrow of Shah? Title of Leader? What American Crisis arose from this?
What decisions were made after World War II that led to the Cold War?
•The Soviet Union, fearful of invasion, built an "iron curtain", which was made to shield itself from the possibility of invasion, and also created a buffer, or a wall of protection, signifying that Stalin was ignoring the agreements adhered at the Yalta Conference.
Decolonization on African Nations
The Path of Decolonization for India
How did the Arab nations respond to the U.N. declaration that a Jewish nation would be made a reality?
What wars occurred between Israel and Palestine?
1967 Six-Day War: Israel temporarily gain Jerusalem, Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights and West Bank as a security blanket. Palestinians offered Israeli or Jordan citizenship, which they either took Jordan, or fled into exile.
The 1973 War: Egyptians launch surprise attack on Jewish holiday, but lose to a counterattack. An uneasy truce ends the warfare between the two.
Which group has led the Palestinian efforts to bring independence to Palestine?
During the Korean War, what caused the conflict between General MacArthur and President Truman?
What were the impacts and effects of the Vietnam War?
What are some examples of Genocide that occurred in the 20th Century?
•Congo had multiple Civil Wars, weakening the nation.
•Darfur killed 400,000 non-Arabs, which destroyed anti-rebel movements.
•Ethnic Rwanda conflict kills 500,000-800,000 people. [Hutus Massacre]
What domestic policies took shape from Mikhail Gorbachev?
Perestroika - Economic Restructuring allowing great authority of farms and small private businesses.
Foreign Policy - Arms Control is a top priority. Gorbachev signed the INF, banning missles capable of launching 300-3,400 miles in range.
The Events that led to the Fall of the Soviet Union:
•August Coup detains Gorbachev, as protestors demand his resignation. Citizens were no longer fearful of defending freedom!
•Gorbachev resigns as Soviet Parliament votes to stop all party (communist) activities. Soviet Union now ceases to exist.
What were the goals of the student protestors in Tiananmen Square? What was the outcome?
"Democracy is not an option."