World History Final Exam Review

June 5, 2015

Innovative Scientists and Inventors

Issac Newton - Three Laws of Motion + Law of Universal. Believed that the world operates like a clock and God sets everything in motion.


Francis Bacon - Promoter of Scientific Method. Scientists should observe the world, gather info, then draw conclusions: Experimental/Empiricism Method.


Johannes Kepler - Tycho Brahe's assistant. German mathematician and astronomer. Three Laws of Planetary Motion.


Nicholas Copernicus - Heliocentric Theory


James Watt - Steam Engine with Matthew Boulton


Richard Arkwright - "Pioneer" of factory system to produce textiles. Water frame to drive spinning wheels.


Eli Whitney - Cotton Gin removing seeds from the cotton. The product skyrocketed.


Henry Bessemer - Bessemer Process. "Age of Steel" signifys the use of steel for over 150 years primarily.

Causes of the French Revolution

•Political Conflicts over the monarchy and nobility over the "reform" of the tax system, leading to bankruptcy.

•The Enlightenment for Government Reformation.

•Louis XVI's reign being ineffective.

•Arguments between bourgeoisie and aristrocratic parties.

•Economic hardships caused by food shortages, leading toward unrest.

The Three Estates (Old Regimine)

First Estate - Clergy (Exempt from Taxation)

Second Estate - Nobility (Dosagreed with Enlightenment ideas)

Third Estste - Bourgeoisie, Peasants, Merchants (Majority taxed; determined to wield power)

Significant Events of French Revolution

•King Louis XVI managed economic stabilization within France rather poorly.

•France was removed from its small group of elite leaders, establishing a democratic leadership.

•Many rumors were spread during this time, sparking the storming (fall) of the Bastille.

•Maximeilen Robospierre tried to gain control, but Reign of Terror had many executions.

What contributed to Napolean's failure in Russia, which Hitler also experienced in his failure invading Russia?

•Napolean enforced a blockade against the other European nations to allow France to become more self-sufficient. Similar to the reaction towards Hitler's actions, the U.S. Congress declared war on Napolean in 1812.

•The Peninsular War in 1808 was intended to get Portugal to accept the Continental System. Nationalism in Spain, France and elsewhere became Napolean's weakness.

•The Invasion of Russia in 1812 was his worst mistake of all. The Russian czar stopped selling France gain with interest in Poland.

-Napolean INVADES Russia. All European Powers had declared war against Napolean at this point, leading him to surrender the throne.

Ideas/Concepts Within Thinkers

Adam Smith - Competition is key towards economic success. Such competition will plummet prices of well-defined goods. Governments should never interfere with business.


Karl Marx - Idea of Marxism, which capitalism will be overcome by communism. Economically, class struggle for historical change. "Haves" (Communists) and "Have-Nots" (Proletariats)


Voltaire - Used satire within publications, making French laws. Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious beliefs and speech.


Locke - Beleived that people could learn from experience and improve themselves. They had the natural ability to govern themselves and look after the welfare of society. Believed in Natural Rights, or the belief that people are naturally born with life, liberty and property.

Impacts of Enlightenment - 1700s-1800s

Belief in Progress, Secular Outlooks and Individual Importance.


Philosophers believed that people could only reason to all aspects of life.

Worldwide Impact of American Revolution

•Marked the first time in history that a colony overthrew its mother country.

•The Constitution and Bill of Rights changed viewpoints on government entirely.

•Inspired reform in France. Enlightenment ideas put into practice.

Latin American Leaders

•Toussaint L'Ouverture was an ex-slave that emerged as leader of the slave uprising, declaring colony independence.


•Simon Bolivar was a wealth Venezuelan creole/military leader. Exiled twice by Venezuela. Met Jose de San Martin who ultimately led the Spanish towards independence.

Similarity of the Scientific Revolution and The Enlightenment

Both were advancements in human understanding based upon independent thinking, rather than becoming forced to adhere solemnly towards a leader.

Why did the Industrial Revolution Begin in Great Britain First?

•Capital for investing in the means of Production

•Colonies and Markets for Manufactured Goods.

•Workers

•Geography

•Extensive natural resources for power:


-Water and Coal for fueling machines

-Iron Ore for Construction

-Rivers for island transportation

-Harbors for Trade

What Social Impacts were left by the Industrial Revolution?

•This put restrictions on working age and hours. [Factory Act of 1819]

•Mines Act prevented children from working underground.

•Ending of Child Labor Movements.

Absolutism

A form of government with a ruler that is not restricted by its Constitution, nor laws of opposition, and has the ability to threaten with violence.

Lenin's Promise and Slogan - Bolshevik Revolution

Lenin promised to pull Russia out of war, give land to peasants and that the works and Soviets could control factories. Had slogans, such as "Peace, Bread, Land" and "All Power to the Soviet's" to gain public support.

Why did Europeans "scramble for Africa" in the late 1800?

•Natural Resources were needed to fuel industrialization.

•Markets for needed goods.

•Control of water routes for strategy.

•Racism as a rationalization, as in Africa

•Europeans feared war.

Stalin's Five-Year Plan and Soviet Union's Economy

Stalin's Five-Year Plan calls for rapid industrial growth and to strengthen national defense. Industry rates increased 25% between 1928-1937. You were imprisoned if you refused to work.

Totaltarianism's Emergence

Totalitarianism describes a government that takes total, centralized state control over every part of the public and private life. Leaders provide a sense of security and give a direct for future.

Similarities and Differences of Nazi, Fascist and Communist regimes post WWI.

Similarities: All rose to challenge democracy. Gov. Control over Economy. Brutality throughout each party skyrocketed.


Differences: Nazis were biggest party of the three. Communists had government run everything and seized private property.

What new technologies were introduced in World War I?

•Atomic Bomb - Proved potentials of human destruction

•Tanks

•Machine Guns

•Poison Gas

•[Tactical] Planes for air warfare.

Why did the U.S. Decide to enter both World Wars?

The Germans sunk the British Ship Lusitania, with Americans on board at the time, angering the United States. Germans applied unrestricted warfare, leading to an inevitable war.

Treaty of Versailles

Germany loses land & demilitarize. Devastates their economy, leading towards faulty relations with the League of Nations, ultimately becoming the stepping stone towards World War II. "An Unjust Treaty" brought about tension. To coincide with these terms, Japan and Italy lose land.

How did the U.S. government respond to the Great Depression?

With banks, factories and businesses demolishing, trade was cut off with Europe entirely by placing high tariffs on goods.

Examples of Appeasement

Appeasement stands for giving into an aggressor and giving peace. France and Britain applied this as Germans disregarded the terms inscribed within the Treaty of Versailles.

What happened to Japanese Americans during World War II?

After the attacks on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, Japanese-Americans were seen as. Threat, innocent or not. 31,275 Japenese-Americans became imprisoned for five years before a public apology was stated.

What occurred at the Nuremberg Trials?

24 Nazi Officials were appointed to trial; half were sentenced to death. Nuremberg Laws took rights of the Jews.

Who used Blitzkrieg?

Blitzkrieg, used by the Germans, requires offensive agility for a swift victory. Poland was SHOCKED as the Germans invaded them without warning!

Who made up the Axis and Allied Powers?

Axis Powers: Germany, Italy and Japan

Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Soviet Union and United States

Significance of the Battles of…

Britain - First battle to be fought in midair!

Midway - American's Turning Point with the Japanese.

Bulge - Hitler faces war on two fronts. Germans unconditionally surrender the war.

Stalingrad - Soviet's never give in from the invasion, causing the Germans to surrender due to starvation.

Operation Barbarossa: Hitler surprises Stalin by invading the Soviet Union, shocking them! Germans pursue 500+ miles inland, burning any town in sight. The Germans may have been outnumbered, but they were well-prepared, proving to be a formidable foe.

The U.S. strategy in the Pacific during the last six months of fighting was...?

The country was mobilized for war with their immense factory production. Imprisoned Japanese-Americans. Bombed Tokyo & other cities surprisingly, despite little damage. Finally, the USA bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki with atomic bombs.

What was Truman's Justification for dropping the Atomic Bomb?

If the Japanese failed to surrender, a "rain from the air" was to be expected, leading to a crippled Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the long run.

These World War II Events occurred in Chornological Order:

Treaty of Versailles

Rise of Nazism

Germany Invasion of Poland

Germany Invasion of Soviet Union

Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor

Allies Invasion of Europe on D-Day

Atomic Bombs dropped in Japan

The Cold War

Strategies: Foreign Aid, Espionage, Multinational Alliances, Propaganda, Brinkmanship and Surrogate


After the conclusion of World War II, the leaders of the United States and Soviet Union insisted upon different viewpoints within society. Each country split sharply after the Yalta Conference; each side had their own issues.


-The United States suffered 400,000 deaths, but no cities were damaged.

-The Soviet's had 50 times the number of casualties as cities were demolished everywhere. Each of these results, as well as political and economic differences, affected the powerhouses relations with each other. These opinions would later shock the world with the possibility of another war.

Examples of Containment

Containment is a U.S. Adopted Policy that is directed towards blocking communist influence and expansion.


With the support of the Truman Doctrine for its support of anti-Communist nations, and the Marshall Plan for its aid to needy European countries, the Containment policy easily spread across the developing Latin America, excluding Cuba.

What was the purpose of the Berlin Wall?

As East-Germans moved to the west, German authorities in the communist east built the wall to prevent well-educated individuals from crossing. This wall eventually fell due to protesting, as was originally built after the formation of NATO and the Warsaw Pact.

Specific Cold War Events in Chronological Order:

Berlin Airlift - Soviets cut West Berlin, leaving them to starve. The United States airlifts aid to them, as provided by the Marshall Plan. This event leads to the start of the Cold War.


Korean War - Divided Korea at the 38th Parallel. U.S. eventually pulls out from the South, leaving the Soviet's and North to coexist. The government was truly tested as a ceasefire is currently persistant.


Vietnam War - Ho Chi Minh wants independence; tries communist support. French grant independence in 1941 after surrendering to what seemed like a futile battle. Eisenhower expresses the domino theory. Vietcong gains power, assassinating Diem as he backs out, which prompts the U.S. to send in troops without a declaration of war. Protests erupt revolving American involvement, causing Nixon to withdraw. Northern Vietnam later overruns the south by 1975, imposing strict control over the south.


Bay of Pigs - CIA trains anti-Castro Cuban exiles. When preparing to invade Cuba, they lacked the promised air support by the Kennedy Administration, humiliating the United States.


Cuban Missle Crisis - Soviet's secretly build missiles on Cuba, but an American plan spots the missles. The U.S. declares a naval blockade around Cuba, bringing Brinkmanship into effect! The war seemed so close...

What was the purpose of the League of Nations, United Nations, Warsaw Pact, and NATO?

League - Attempted to make peace with Germany after World War I, which failed.

U.N. - Intended to protect members against aggression.

NATO - Defensive military alliance of being against Soviet's.

Warsaw Pact - Founded in response to the threat of NATO.

What was decided at the Geneva Conference regarding Vietnam?

Vietnam was divided at the 17th Parallel. A communist north, and an anti-Communist south consisting of U.S. support under the rule of Ngo Dinh Diem. Communist guerrillas called the Vietcong opposed his leadership, and later assassinate him.

What is the significance of Jerusalem?

•Ancient homeland for the Jews. Third most holy city for the Muslims.

•Modern Jews pray at the Western Wall, which is the only remaining piece of the Second Temple that was eradicated by the Romans in 70 AD.

Result due to overthrow of Shah? Title of Leader? What American Crisis arose from this?

Iran nationalists resented foreign alliances with Western Powers, especially towards the United States. The shah, which the Americans supported, was overthrown into exile, returning the leader's title to ayatollahs. This lead to the 2nd Gulf War over oil production.

What decisions were made after World War II that led to the Cold War?

•The three nations at the Yalta Conference agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation.

•The Soviet Union, fearful of invasion, built an "iron curtain", which was made to shield itself from the possibility of invasion, and also created a buffer, or a wall of protection, signifying that Stalin was ignoring the agreements adhered at the Yalta Conference.

Decolonization on African Nations

By the conclusion of World War I, many African nations had begun to declare independence from European nations. India became the first decolonized nation.

The Path of Decolonization for India

A British massacre of unarmed Indians in 1919 increased nationalism. Gandhi was a peacekeeper, in essence. British House of Commons grant independence after much rioting.

How did the Arab nations respond to the U.N. declaration that a Jewish nation would be made a reality?

Every Arab nation voted against the partition, and the Palestinians downright rejected it, questioning the U.N.'s rights without the consent of their people. When Jewish support was established, Palestinians fled from Jewish control.

What wars occurred between Israel and Palestine?

1956 Suez Crisis: Britiain and France help Israel claim the Suez Canal, but U.S. and Soviet pressure force them to withdraw, allowing Egypt to take charge.


1967 Six-Day War: Israel temporarily gain Jerusalem, Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights and West Bank as a security blanket. Palestinians offered Israeli or Jordan citizenship, which they either took Jordan, or fled into exile.


The 1973 War: Egyptians launch surprise attack on Jewish holiday, but lose to a counterattack. An uneasy truce ends the warfare between the two.

Which group has led the Palestinian efforts to bring independence to Palestine?

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), led by Yasir Arafat. This spread a wide campaign of civil disobedience to demonstrate, boycott, and attack known as intifada, or "uprising".

During the Korean War, what caused the conflict between General MacArthur and President Truman?

During the standoff at the 38th Parallel, MacArthru proposed a nuclear attack on North Korea, but Truman refused, firing MacArthur when he attempted to persuade The U.S. Congress.

What were the impacts and effects of the Vietnam War?

When Nixon applied 'Vietnamization' to withdraw forces, North Vietnam overran the South. They applied communist oppression, causing 1.5 million people to flee the country. Industries nationalized and businesses were strictly controlled.

What are some examples of Genocide that occurred in the 20th Century?

•Nigeria erupted in Civil War.

•Congo had multiple Civil Wars, weakening the nation.

•Darfur killed 400,000 non-Arabs, which destroyed anti-rebel movements.

•Ethnic Rwanda conflict kills 500,000-800,000 people. [Hutus Massacre]

What domestic policies took shape from Mikhail Gorbachev?

Glasnost - Openess! Freedom of Press and Religion!

Perestroika - Economic Restructuring allowing great authority of farms and small private businesses.

Foreign Policy - Arms Control is a top priority. Gorbachev signed the INF, banning missles capable of launching 300-3,400 miles in range.

The Events that led to the Fall of the Soviet Union:

•Soviet's face turmoil as unrest spreads due to the call of freedom.

•August Coup detains Gorbachev, as protestors demand his resignation. Citizens were no longer fearful of defending freedom!

•Gorbachev resigns as Soviet Parliament votes to stop all party (communist) activities. Soviet Union now ceases to exist.

What were the goals of the student protestors in Tiananmen Square? What was the outcome?

Economic Reforms result in living standards improving. This widely popular protest sparked a desire for democracy. Students built a 33-foot statue called the Goddess of Democracy. Soldiers attacked student protesters as China declares Marital Law ending the movement with 10,000 arrested and hundreds killed.


"Democracy is not an option."