Dissection File Biology Project

by Jonathan Gurvey

Everything comes from the Earth(worm) Dissection File

Objectives:

1. To help the student understand the anatomy of an earthworm
2. To help the student understand how the earthworms various body systems interact and coincide.
3. To help the student understand proper dissection procedures.
4. To help the student understand how an earthworm survives and goes about life.

Background Information

Scientific Name- Lumbricus terrestris
Habitat- Rich soil found around the world.
Predators- Various birds and snakes, rodents, and sometimes even insects.
Prey- Decaying plant and animal matter.
Niche- Can be in any of three categories- Epigeic, Endogeic, and Anecic.
Ecological Adaptations- Setae, Streamlined body, and the ability to push the pharynx out of the mouth.

Digestive System

The earthworm has a system with regions. The vital organs are the pharynx, the esophagus, the crop, the intestine, and the gizzard. The food is swallowed, enters the pharynx, passes through the esophagus, and moves to the crop for storage. The stored food then moves to the gizzard, where stones are held that aid in the grinding of the food material. The material then moves into the intestines where the nutrition is absorbed by the blood vessels before being ejected out through the anus.

Biological Units/Extra Information

Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Annelidia

Class: Oligochaeta

Subclass: Haplotaxida

Order: Megadrilacea

Suborder: Lumbricinia


Evolution:

The earthworm evolved body segments to help it move through the ground. The earthworm also developed a way for small rocks to grind up food in the digestive system.


Ecology:

The Earthworm lives in the ground, and is eaten by birds and small animals alike. They are primary consumers.


Body Systems: Refer to above.


Human impact: The earthworm has aided humans in seeing how certain organisms developed. Earthworms are also commonly used as fishing bait :)

Bibliography

"Earthworm." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Aug. 2013. Web. 09 Apr. 2014.


"Earthworms." Earthworms. Pennsylvania University, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014

My lunch is Perch(ed) on the edge of my Esophogous Dissection File

Objectives:

1. To help the student understand the anatomy of an Perch
2. To help the student understand how the Perch's various body systems interact and coincide.
3. To help the student understand proper dissection procedures.
4. To help the student understand how a Perch survives and goes about life.

Background Information

Scientific Name- Perca fluviatilis
Habitat- Small freshwater lakes and streams.
Predators- Many large fish and fish eating birds.
Prey- Zooplankton, anything that might fit into the mouth.
Niche- Feeds on anything small, and is usually eaten by many larger organisms.
Ecological Adaptations- Palatines (teeth), Zooplankton filters in gill rakers.

Respiratory System

The Perch takes in oxygen through its gills. There are string-like filaments that cross over attached lamellas in the gill chambers. Oxygen rich water enters the mouth and filters through the gills, The opercula drapes over the gills and prevents water from escaping the fish.

Biological Units/Extra Information

Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Superclass: Osteichthyes

Class: Actinopterygii

Subclass: Neopterygii

Infraclass: Teleostei

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae

Genus: Perca

Species: Fluviatilis


Evolution:

The Perch has evolved more efficient ways to pull oxygen from the water around it. They have also evolved to survive in water of all types- Murky, Saline, and Fresh.


Ecology:

The perch live in areas all around the world. They eat what they can fit in their mouth and are eaten by many creatures bigger than themselves. They are primary consumers.


Body Systems:

Refer to above.


Human impact:

Humans have used the Perch for food for Millenia. The perch's abundance in streams and rivers has allowed Homo sapiens with even the most simple tools to catch the Perch.

Biblyography

"Species Profile - Yellow Perch: Minnesota DNR." Species Profile - Yellow Perch: Minnesota DNR. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2014.

Yellow Perch." UWL Website. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2014.


"Respiratory System." Respiratory System. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.


"Evolutionary History of Nile Perch Lates Sp. Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Variation Analyses." Zoological Studies. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.

Arthropod Dissection File (yeah, you try making a funny title name with this one...)

Objectives:

1. To help the student understand the anatomy of Arthropods
2. To help the student understand Arthropods' various body systems interact and coincide.
3. To help the student understand proper dissection procedures.
4. To help the student understand how Arthropods survive and go about life.

Background Information

Scientific Name- Procambarus clarkii
Habitat- Brooks and streams of freshwater towards the base of the water area.
Predators- Various mammals. Humans
Prey- Various insects. Small fish eggs.
Niche- Secondary Consumers at the floor of freshwater bodies.
Ecological Adaptations- Color as camoflauge, strong pincers, and eyes that are good for seeing through silt.

CIrculatory System

Arthropods have an open circulatory system. This means that blood is pumped from the heart and diffuses through body cells. The heart pumps the blood into various cavities and are surrounded by tissues. The blood flows freely through the body.

Biological Units/Background information

Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda


Evolution:

Arthropods have evolved to form a cytoskeleton which allows them greater protection. They also evolved into an open circulatory system which helps their body temperature. Their eyes have also evolved to better see at the bottom of a lake or river.


Ecology: The range in ecology in Arthropoda is very great, as they range from primary to secondary consumers.


Body Systems: Refer to above.


Human Impact: Many arthropods are considered delicacies for human beings. The price for Arthropoda is quite high compared to its weight. There have been many television shows based off of the catching of Arthropoda, such as "The deadliest catch"

Biblyography

"Crayfish." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Sept. 2014. Web. 09 Apr. 2014.

"Crayfish" FCPS. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2014.


"Describe the Circulatory System of a Crayfish?" - Ask.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.