By:Emilie Beasley

Here are some things about vertebrates

Jawless fish.

Jawless fish has no scales, no teeth, and that there mouth contains structure for grabbing,scrapping, and that they suck there food.

Also their skeletons are made of cartilage. Examples:

Hagfish and Lampreys.

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Cartilaginous fish


They have jaws,scales,and skeletons are made of cartilage. And are normally carnivores and they eat meat. Example: Sharks,Skates, and rays.
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Bony fish

Bony fish.

They have jaws,gills,scales,find,and a skeleton made of hard bones. And they make up 95% of all fish species. And they like in salt and fresh water. Examples: Clown fish, trout,and seahorses
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Fun Facts about Cartilaginous fish,Bony fish,Jaw less fish

Jawless fish.

Lampreys are parasites of other fish.

Hagfish eat decaying remaining of other fish.

Cartilaginous fish.

Shark have to replay on swimming or the ocean currents to get air in to their lungs. And they do that because of this they sleep in ocean currents.

Bony fish.

They have an internal gas sack that helps the fish stay stable when they are at different depths of water. And this gas filled organ is thought to have given rise to their lungs and other creatures.

Different types of amphibians

Types of amphibians.

Their is frogs,toads,and salamanders there is all types of amphibians on land and off land.


Amphibians begin their lives in the water,most spend their lives on land. And return to water to reproduce.

Warm blooded or cold blooded?

Amphibians are cold blooded and another word for cold blooded and the other word is ethotherms. And they have to change their surroundings to maintain body temperature so they can like get warm since they are cold blooded.

How are they born.

Amphibians hatch from eggs with skills that help them breathe underwater. And they then go through metamorphosis to their adult form and develop ones in their legs.

Amphibian skin.

Amphibians have smooth slimy skin. And they DO NOT have scales. Also some amphibians can breathe through their skin. And their skin is permeable (which allows oxygen in and out of the animal),but they must be moist. And the last thing is that their are many amphibians live near the water because they have to be moist and not dry.


The webbed feet that frogs have is that they use that to so they can swim through the water and so it can be easier for them to like swim faster. And tree frogs and maybe others they have sticky pads on their toes to give it secure footholds so they can climb.



    Frogs and toads are carnivores, and that means that they will eat meat, Small to large sized frogs eat insects such as flys,mosquitoes, moths and dragonflies. Larger frogs will eat bigger insect then the smaller frogs like and the bigger frogs eat grasshoppers and worms. And frogs will even eat small snakes, mice, baby turtles, and even other smaller frogs!

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Crickets might probably the most popular food for them and, Captive toads will also eat vegetables and fruits, but they prefer live prey. If you need to, you can always supplement your toad's diet by hunting for earthworms, insects in your yard. And the yard because they like live prey to eat.
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Salamanders eat, spiders, worms, dragonflies, slugs, centipedes, insect eggs, frog eggs and other small invertebrates. An aquatic salamander eats small fish, tadpoles, frogs, leeches, mosquito eggs and anything else that has the misfortune to fall into the water so the salamanders can get something to eat.
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Reptiles share.

Reptiles are ectothermic (cold blooded) also they lay eggs, have scaly skin, and have lungs. And reptiles have a data for life on land and their skin, kidneys, and eggs have to adapt to conserve water.

Types of reptiles.

Lizards, snakes, turtles, alligators, and crocodiles are all parts of the group called reptiles.

Lizard characteristics.

Their skin is covered with overlapping scales as they grow they shed their skin.

And they have four legs , toes , long tails, internal ears two lungs, and there are herbivores and carnivores and they have movable eyelids.

Snake characteristics.

Their skin is covered with overlapping scales, as they grow they shed their skin same as the lizards. And snakes has no legs, they have internal ears, no eyelids, carnivores, jawless bones can spread apart, some have long teeth, some have venom, and they slither and move around.

Alligator and crocodile characteristics.

Alligators and crocodiles are large carnivores, reptiles that care for their young and strong muscular tails to swim fast and muscular jaw to bite down on their food.

Things about alligators.

They have a rounded snout.

They show a little bit of Their teeth when their mouth is closed.

Alligators don't usually attack humans.

Things about crocodiles.

Crocodile have pointed snouts.

Most of crocodiles teeth is visible when their mouth is close.

Turtle characteristic.

Turtles can live in the ocean, fresh water, and on land turtles who live on land are called "tortoises". And their body is covered by shell, their shell has ribs and a backbone, and the sharp edges on the turtle speed is for tearing their food if they have trouble eating and the sharp edges on the turtles big is for tearing their food if they have trouble their food, their shells can be hard or soft, they can be carnivores or herbivores, and they also their shell is covered with scales.

Things about turtles.

Turtles are mostly as pets, Turtles have been on earth for more than 200 million years they evolved before mammals, birds, crocodiles, snakes, and even lizards. And turtles range in size from the four-inch bog turtle to the 1500 pound leatherey turtle. Also their shell is made up of different bones all connected together. The last thing is turtles are one of the oldest and most primitive groups of reptiles and have outlived many other species one can only wonder if their unique shell is responsible for their longevity.
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Things about snakes.

Their are more than 2,700 species of snakes in the world, they live almost everywhere in desert, forest, oceans, streams, and lakes.


They make their home in the amazon jungles of South America and are part of the boa constrictor family. And they live near rivers, lakes, and swamps and they like to live alone. And the average size of one of those snakes is 20 feet long and weighs like 300 pounds.
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Things about lizards.

The largest is a Komodo monitor,did know that it can be as long as a person. And the smallest lizard is a tiny gecko. Also most lizards have dry scaly skin, they have four legs, and they have a long tail.

What does lizards eat.

Lizards eat bugs,spiders,and others eat plants and so lizards eat smaller lizards. Also most lizards use their eyes to look for food. And some use their sense of smell.


Lizards live in deserts, forests, prairies, marshes, areas. Most lizards live on the ground or tree.
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Crocodiles and Alligators

Alligators weight and size.

A alligator can grow up to be 11.2 feet and 3.4 meters long. And their weight is nearly half a ton 1,000 pounds or 454 kilograms.

Where you can find some alligators.

Some alligators live in the southern United States from North Carolina to Texas. And some found by slow-moving rivers, pounds,lakes,and swamps.

Where do crocodiles live.

Today,crocodiles are found in the tropical, Africa, Asia, Australia, and the American. They are normally live near lakes,wetlands,and even some saltwater regions.

How much do crocodiles weight.

The smallest crocodiles is the caiman and the largest is called the lolong. And the smallest one weights 4.6ft and the largest one is 20 pounds.


There is over 10,000 species.

Characteristics of birds.

Birds are endothermic and that means (warm blooded). And they build nest,has feathers, and they lay eggs.

What do they eat?

Birds swallow small stones so it likes digestives their stomach. And so they don't have teeth.

Adaptations for flight.

Their bones are nearly hollow making the bird lightweight so it can like fly. Birds have wings and feathers contour feathers is a large that gives to the bird body, flight feathers contour feathers on the wings and tail that help balance steer. Also down feathers, short and fluffy in trap the heat so like the birds can stay warm or something like that.

Can all birds fly?

No, not all birds because 60 living species of birds that cannot fly. Examples: Penguin,ostrich,emu,cassowary,rhea,and kiwi.


Thing about them

All mammals are endothermic and that means they are (warm-blooded) and all mammals have a four chambered heart. And they are all covered was for or hair on their bodies to keep them warm they are all covered was for or hair on their bodies well to keep them warm or something like that. Also the last thing is that young mammals are fed milk produced from its mother.

Examples of animals

Kangaroos, Dolphins, mice, lions, rabbits, fox, bates, moles and there is many more.

Did you know?

Most people think that all animals have live birth but some of them lay eggs instead of live birth. And also there are three classes of mammals. Mono threes are mammals that lay eggs. And only spinty anteaters and duck-billed platypus fall in to this category.

Least mammals have their kids in their pouch

Marsupials are another group of mammals, this group contains: koala, kangaroo, and opossum. And marsupials have young that are born very early development. The young contains to develop inside a pouch on their mothers body.

More animals have their kids like humans

Placental mammals are the last group of mammals this group contains: humans, Dolphins, zebras, and ton of others. Also placental mammals have young that develop inside their mothers body until it's my system function independently. Placenta mammals are a very diverse group of mammals like they range from armadillos to elephants.

Caring for their young

Young mammals are usually born very helpless due to this fact young mammals stay in the care of their mother. Or both parents for a extended amount of time this varies from months to years.