The Apollo Missions
By: Alan Park
This picture was in Apollo 11 when the first man landed on the moon.This picture was in Apollo 13 when something exploded in the command module.This picture was in Apollo 16 when nasa sent people on the moon again.This picture was from Apollo 17 when nasa sent people to go to the moon to get samples and that was the day when nasa sent man to the moon again.http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html?media_id=11463015http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html?media_id=11463015Apollo missions:On Apollo 1 there was a great tragedy in the command module when the first men were about to go to the moon. A flash of fire sparked inside thecommand module and the door was stuck and they couldn’t get out. So after the fire an investigation was started and found the problem inside the command module.Apollo 5 was one of the crucial tests of the components on the lunar spacecraft that would become vital to the success of manned flights to the moon. The mission was vital in that it tested the lunar module that would separate the main spacecraft and landing on the moon. The goal of the mission was to test the ascent and descent engines that would help the spacecraft to land on the moon and return the spacecraft with the crew.Apollo 6 was the last flight for the unmanned Apollo mission. It demonstrates separations of launch vehicle stages. It also demonstrates performance of missions support facilities.The Apollo 7 was to demonstrate command and service module, or CSM, and crew performance. Space vehicles and mission support facilities performance during a crew manned csm mission, and demonstrate rendezvous capability.The mission objective for Apollo 8 included the coordinate performance of the crew. The mission also was to demonstrate translunar injections like csm navigation, communication, midcourse corrections, consumable assessment, and passive thermal control.The primary objective for Apollo 9 was an earth-orbit engineering test of the first crew lunar module or LM. Concurrent prime objectives include an overall checkout of launch vehicles and spacecraft systems. This was done by performing an integrated series of flight tasks with the CM (Command Module), SM (Service Module), and the CSM (Command and Service Module).The Apollo 10 Mission encompassed all aspects of an actual lunar landing, except the landing. It was the first flight of a complete crew manned Apollo spacecraft to operate around the moon. Objectives included a scheduled eight hour lunar orbit of the separate lunar module about nine miles off the moon’s surface, before ascending for rendezvous,and docking with the command and service module.On Apollo 11 man has finally landed on the moon. During the exploration, the two astronauts were to gather samples of lunar-surface materials for return to Earth. They also were to extensively photograph the lunar terrain, and deploy scientific equipment, the LM spacecraft, and the motion picture cameras.This was to be the last Apollo mission to fly a “free return” trajectory.On Apollo 12, the primary mission objective of the second crew manned ,lunar landing included an extensive series of lunar exploration. Other Apollo 12 objectives included a selenological inspection, a development of techniques for landing capability, and further evaluations of the human capability. The astronauts also were to retrieve portions of the surveyor 111 spacecraft, which had soft-landing on the moon.On Apollo 13, Nasa’s astronauts were supposed to land on the Fra Mauro area. Than an explosion happened on board and forced the Apollo 13 to circle around the moon,without landing. The Fra Mauro site was reassigned to Apollo 14. What happened was the center engine of the s-11 stage shut down two min (minutes) early.This caused the remaining four engines to burn 34 sec (seconds) longer than planned, the S-IVB third stage had to burn nine sec longer to put Apollo 13 in orbit.On Apollo 14 , the primary objective of this mission were to explore the Fra Mauro region centered around deployment of the ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Scientific Experiments Package). The communications test using s-band, and VHF signals to determine reflective properties of the lunar surface. Nasa test to determine variations in s-band signals, and photograph the surface details from 60 nautical miles in altitude.Apollo 15 was the first of the Apollo “J” missions capable of longer stay time on the moon. Exploration and geological investigation at the Hadley-Aqennine landing site were enhanced by the addition of the Lunar Roving Vehicle,or LRV. Orbital science experiments were concentrated in any array that the instruments and cameras in the scientific instrument module. Apollo 16, was in the landing site and it was in the highlands region on the moon’s southeast quadrant. It was selected as an outstanding location to get samples from the two volcanic construction units of the highlands. The ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package), was the fourth station to become operational after Apollo 12,14, and 15.Apollo 17, the lunar landing site was the Taurus-Littrow highlands and the valley area. Apollo 17 picked the location because the rocks were older and younger than the previous Apollo missions from Luna 16 and about 20 other missions. The mission were planned for the Apollo programs. The J-type missions can be distinguished from the previous G and H-series missions by hardware capability.