Language Arts 8th Grade

what we've learned this year. by Julian Roberts

Chapter 1: The Sentence

A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb that expresses a complete thought.

The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about.

The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what he sentence is about.

The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject.

The verb is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject.

A compound subject consists of two or more connected subjects that have the same verb .

A compound verb consists of two or more verbs that have the same subject.

A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period.

An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. They end in a period or an exclamation mark.

An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.

An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point.

Chapter 1 Examples

sentence: The dog is black.

subject: Marley kicked the football.

simple subject: Billy came late to the party.

predicate: Leo's brother delivers pizza

verb: I ran down the street

compound subject: Bob and Tom worked on the puzzle

compound verb: The dog barked and growled at the strangers

declarative sentence: I like waffles.

Imperative sentence: Stop that!

interrogative sentence: Was it fun?

exclamatory sentence: We won the game!

Chapter 2 Parts of Speech

A noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person, place, thing, or idea.

A compound noun is made up of two or more words used together as a single noun.

A common noun names any one of a group o persons, places, things, and ideas.

A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or idea.

A concrete noun names a person, place, or thing that can be identified by the five senses. An abstract noun names an idea, personality, quality, or characteristic.

A collective noun is a word that names a group.

A pronoun is a word used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.

A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and functions as a complement or an object of a preposition.

An intensive pronoun emphasizes a noun or another pronoun.

A demonstrative pronoun points out a person, place thing, or idea.

A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause.

An indefinite pronoun refers to a person place thing or idea that may or may not be named.

Chapter 2 Examples

noun: Kobe's my favorite player

compound noun: let's play basketball

common noun: that cat is black

proper noun: I like Antonio Brown

concrete noun: the cow kicked me

abstract noun:Everyone likes humor

collective noun: the audience was great

pronoun: He is tall

reflexive pronoun: I washed the car myself

intensive pronoun: i knew that you yourself would pass

demonstrative pronoun: This is my car

indefinite pronoun: look in both cabinets

relative pronoun:the cyclist who won the race trained hard.

personal pronoun: you need to stop lying to me

interrogative pronoun: What do you want for dinner.

adjective: he gave me another one.

Chapter 3 Parts of Speech

A verb is a word used to express action or a state of being.

A transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action directed towards a noun.

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

The preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition, to another word.

The conjunction is a word used to join words or word groups

An interjection is a word that is used to show emotion.

Chapter 3 Examples

verb: the dog barked

transitive verb: Sylvia kicked Juan under the table.

adverb: James strolled proudly into the dance

preposition: The clue is hidden in the book

conjunction: Me and my mom are tall.

interjection: Wow! I'm happy.

Chapter 4 Compliments

complement: a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb

Direct object: a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action


Indirect object: a noun, pronoun, or a word group that sometimes appears in sentences containing direct objects.

Subject compliments: a word or word group that completes the meaning of a linking verb and that identifies or describes the subject.

Predicate nominative: a word or word group that is in the predicate and identifies the subject or refers to it.

Predicate adjective: an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.

CHapter 4 examples.