The Crusades

Caroline, Trent & Angel

What are the Crusades?

The Crusades were a series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Latin Europe. There were different crusades fought for different reasons but the original crusade was a fight with the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and The Holy Land from Muslim rule. The crusades were a series of holy wars and expeditions by europeans to reclaim Palestine from the Muslims, who were at the time called Saracens. They were first initiated in 1095 by Pope Claremont, when he preached the first crusade to the Council of Claremont. There were eight crusades; the first four are considered the major crusades and the last four were considered minor crusades. There was also a childrens crusade and it’s estimated that between 2,000,000 - 6,000,000 people died.

Cause of the Crusades

The main cause of the crusades is religion. It was a war between Christians and Muslims which was centered around the city of Jerusalem, and the Holy places of Palestine.

Major Events

Knights of the Fourth Crusade Capture Constantinople-The knights of the Fourth Crusade capture Constantinople, ushering in the triumph of militant Latin Catholicism and establishing Western political and economic power over the Byzantine Empire.

Pope Urban II Calls the first crusade- Pope Urban II calls the First Crusade, initiating the first in a series of military expeditions from western Europe to the Middle East intent on recapturing the Holy Land from the Muslims.
The crusades - a brief history

Effects of the Crusades

There were short term and long term effects caused by the crusades. The creation of protestant churches, middle ages, fall of the catholic church, opened up European Culture, help led to the Renaissance, improved trade, improved commerce, helped to undermine fuedalism, one of the principal fostering influences of Chivalry. It encouraged explorers like Marco Polo to start exploring parts of Asia which in turn inspired other explorers, like Columbus, to explore the world. It also revolutionized the Crusaders intellectually, because they were being exposed to so much new culture and customs.

Some of the short term effects were that commerce between nations was altered during the crusades, and certain products such as silks, tapestries, precious stones, perfumes, spices, pearls, and ivory were sold extensively throughout Europe. Another short term effect was that many people also died in these crusades.

Medieval Europe and the Crusades, Christianity and Islam

Interesting Facts

  • "Deus vult!", meaning "God wills it" was the battle cry of the Crusaders. It came from a speech the Pope gave while gathering support for the First Crusade.
  • The symbol of the Crusaders was a red cross. Soldiers wore it on their clothing and armor. It was also used on flags and banners.

Essential Question

What were the short term and long term effects of the Crusades on Christianity and Europe?