Social-Cognitive Perspective

Brianna Squire

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Albert Bandura

Albert Bandura is the originator of the social learning theory. Which is the theory of how people learn through observing others. Also known for his research in Self-efficacy, Bobo doll experiment, Human Agency, and Reciprocal Determinism. Bandura was the youngest of six children living in Mundare, in Alberta (Canada). And is now currently teaching at Stratford University.

Reciprocal Determinism

Reciprocal Determinism is one of the many famous theories produced by Albert Bandura. This particular theory describes ones behavior influences and is influenced by personal factors and social environment.

For example: Lets image there is a shy student (personal) and enters a class where all the student are present (Environment). Usually the shy student would go to the back of the class to avoid any attention(Behavior Component). Before she escapes to the back of the class she is loudly addressed by a friendly student who offers her a seat near the front. In this environment the shy student is introduced to a new behavior that changed her normal routine. Resulting in a behavioral change.

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Self Efficacy is (to Bandura) "the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of actions required to manage prospective situation." Basically the persons belief in his/her ability to succeed in a particular situation.

For example, someone with a high self efficacy received a poor test grade on math and would regard the poor grade to a harder than usual test, lack of effort or illness. While someone with a low self-efficacy would regard the poor grade to poor mathematical ability.

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Bobo Doll Experiment

Bandura had tested 36 girls/boys between the ages of 3 and 6 from the stratford nursery. After pretesting them for aggressive behaviors on a four 5 point scale. After paring children with similar aggressive behaviors the children were individually shown into a playroom for 10 minutes while previously witnessing aggressive or non aggressive behaviors to a "Bobo Doll."

Results: Children who observed aggressive behavior demonstrated more aggression than those who did not. Boys were more likely to imitate same-sex models than females. Boys imitated more aggressive physical acts than females.

Critics: The models of the children had been strangers, unlike in a normal atmosphere which the children would be around family. Also no proof of long term effects on the children, since the study allows the children to be in the playroom for a limited amount of time.

Learned Helplessness

Learned helplessness is the behavior in which and organism is forced to endured unpleasant and or painful events, therefore becomes unable or unwilling to avoid subsequent encounters with those events, even if escapable.

For example: Doggy experiments - the observation of dogs that were trained to expect an electrical shock after hearing a bell. Later, placed in a shuttle box where one side was receiving shocks of electricity. The dogs previously trained to expect the shocks didn't attempt to escape to the other side.

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