IPS Exam Study Guide

Chapter 1-3

Safety Notes

Safety equipment

-fire extinguisher

-fire blanket

-eye wash/shower


Chemicals

- don't eat or touch

- waft liquids, not solids or powders

-wash hands with soap and water


Glass

- hot and cold glass look the same

- don't use broken glass

- never use force to insert or remove glass


Alcohol Burners

- roll up sleeves, put hair up

- don't walk away from lit burner

- never point end of hot test tube at someone or yourself

- don't look into test tube


Diluting Acid

- acid to water

- never water to acid

- exothermic reaction

- water will sit on acid and could splash out

Chapter 1

Reaction in a bag

- liquid A is hot

- liquid B is cold

- need a liquid for a reaction

- need red liquid to turn yellow

- pressure comes from any liquid


Experimental errors

- solid A and solid B mix

----- small hole in bag

- gas escapes

----won't see pressure build up

Heated Baking Soda

- baking soda is Sodium Bicarbonate

- baking soda turns into different substance

- gas comes from baking soda (carbon dioxide)

- gas forms condensation on top


Experimental Errors:

- a hole in the tubing

----- gas escapes and won't see reaction

- rubber stopper not on tight enough

----- gas escapes and won't see water leave bottle

Balance notes

1. check that pan is clean and dry

2. zero balance

3. never switch pans

4. pick up balance by red bar

volume notes

unit of measure for volume: cm3

volume: LxWxH

unit of measure for length: meters

1 meter is 100 centimeters

1 ml= 1 cm3

volume of liquids

- use graduated cylinder

- check intervals

Volume of Displacement of Water

- use different amounts of sand, but all get the same percent


Experimental Errors:

- pour sand into water

- ---volume of sand and water will increase

- read the sand level instead of water level

----- volume of sand and water too low

- funnel could be tilted, sand will stick to sides

-----volume of sand and water will be lower

Measurement Notes

- 1 kilogram is 1,000 grams

- 1 meter is 100 centimeters

- 1 kilogram is 2.2 pounds

Sensitivity of a Balance

Sensitivity of a balance- the margin of error your balance has when massing an object

- change in mass/ number of yes's


Experimental Errors:

- having written on the paper

------adds mass

- not cut out a 20x20 piece of paper

----mass will change

Chapter 2

The mass of dissolved salt

It's a closed system so there is no change in mass


Experimental Errors:

- cleaning the pan in between Mi and Mf

------ you lose mass

- pour salt into water and spill

----- lead to decrease in mass

- cap is not on tight and water spills out

----- decrease in mass

- bottle is wet on outside during Mi-

-----decrease in mass

- remove cap before Mf

-----decrease in mass

The Mass of Ice and Water

It's a closed system so there is no change in mass

The condensation comes from water vapor hitting the cold surface and turning into a liquid. It comes from the outside so must be wiped off.


Experimental Errors:

- not wiping off condensation

---- adds mass

- shaking the bottle

---- water spills out, losing mass

- open lid and some of the water evaporates

---- loses mass

- don't dry off bottle before Mi

---- adds mass

Mass of Copper and Sulfur

It's a closed system so there is no change in mass

- use a sheet instead of a stopper because stopper would fly off

- liquid came from water in sulfur


Experimental Errors:

- shake test tube, sulfur sticks to the sides

---- no reaction

- hole in rubber sheet

---gas would exit, loss in mass

- sheet is not on tight or fold in the sheet

---gas escapes, loss in mass

Mass of a Gas

It's a closed system so not change in mass


Experimental Errors:

- cap is not on tight enough

--- loss in mass

- wet on outside of bottle

---add mass

- not dry cap

---add mass

Conservation of Mass

In a closed system the mass will remain constant. Mass is always conserved, however in a nuclear reaction some mass it lost. The energy released in a nuclear reaction will be absorbed into surrounding material, adding mass to it, so the mass is not really "lost".

Laws of Nature

- must do many experiments to prove it is a law of nature

- laws of nature can be changed if something is proven not true

- there are limitations to these laws

- If there are not clouds sky will be blue if there is not pollution

Chapter 3

Properties of Substances and Objects

- Property of Object- describes substance (what it looks like)

- Property of Substance- describes what substance is made of

Mass and Volume

Aluminum and Brass have same volume, but different mass

If two objects have the same volume and are the same substance, they has the same mass

If two objects have the same volume but are different substances, they will have a different mass


Experimental Errors:

- cylinder is wet when massed

---- adds mass

- water splashes out of graduated cylinder when putting long cylinder in

---- volume decreases

Density

g/cm3

Mass/volume= density

Density is property of a substance

Density of Solids

Cube 1 and slab have same density, Cube 2 has different density

Rocks have different densities because they are sedimentary so they are different substances compiled together. When you break them they each have a different amount of each substance


Experimental Errors:

- Measured volume of rock before massing

----adds mass, density increases

- measure from end of ruler, not zero

---- volume decreases, density increases

Density of Liquids

liquid A had more epsom salt than liquid B

epsom salt is magnesium sulfate


Experimental Errors:

- cylinder is wet on inside, contaminated

----numbers will change

- liquid sticks to inside wall of cylinder

---mass would increase, density would increase

- dry out graduated cylinder after you mass it

--- mass of the empty graduated cylinder too high

Density of a gas

Gas is carbon dioxide and it comes from sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)


Experimental Errors:

- hand not tight on bottle when taking out of water

---volume of gas too big, density decreases

- spill water when finding volume of bottle

--- volume decreases, density increases

- touch tablet after Mi

--- mass increase, density increases

- hole in tubing. taking too long to insert tubing

---- volume of gas too low, density increases

- air bubble in bottle

--- volume too high, density decreases

- Not putting foil back for Mf

---- bigger mass, density increases

The range of Densities

solids have high density, then liquids, and then gases have the lowest densities