Belief system/ Religion

What are people's belief? How does it effect them?

Hindui


    With approximately one billion followers, Hinduism is the world's third largest religion by population. Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal law" or the "eternal way" beyond human origins.


Origin

Hinduism is a collective term applied to the many philosophical and religious traditions native to India. Hinduism has neither a specific moment of origin nor a specific founder. Rather, the tradition understands itself to be timeless, having always existed. Indeed, its collection of sacred texts is known, as a whole, as Sanatana Dharma, "The Eternal Teaching." It is thus a complex tradition that encompasses numerous interrelated religious doctrines and practices that have some common characteristics but which lack any unified system of beliefs and practices. Hinduism encompasses a number of major sects, as well as countless subsects with local or regional variations. On one level, it is possible to view these sects as distinct religious traditions, with often very specific theologies and ritual traditions; on another level, however, they often understand themselves to be different means to reach a common end. The Hindu worldview is grounded in the doctrines of samsara (the cycle of rebirth) and karma (the universal law of cause and effect), and fundamentally holds that one's actions (including one's thoughts) directly determine one's life, both one's current life and one's future lives. Many, but not all, Hindus hold that the cosmos is populated by numerous deities and spiritual beings — gods and goddesses, or devas — who actively influence the world and who interact with humans. The tradition is typically divided into four major sects: Shaiva (devotees of the god Shiva), Vaishnava (devotees of the god Vishnu), Shakta (devotees of the goddess), and Smarta (those who understand the ultimate form of the divine to be abstract and all encompassing, Brahman).

Movement

The reform movements largely emerged from the growing contact that Hindu thinkers had with Western thought, culture and religion. Below are the four most important movements and the names associated with them.

Belief system

    The belief in reincarnation, karma, and dharma also provides the religious justification for the existence of the rigid social structure known as the Caste System. Samsara, or reincarnation, is a central teaching of Hinduism.

Practices

    Hindu practices include rituals such as puja (worship) and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, and occasional pilgrimages. Some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions, then engage in lifelong Sannyasa ascetic practices to achieve moksha.

Code of conduct

Practice noninjury, not harming others by thought, word or deed, even in your dreams. Live a kindly life, revering all beings as expressions of the One Divine energy. Let go of fear and insecurity, the sources of abuse. Knowing that harm caused to others unfailingly returns to oneself, live peacefully with God’s creation. Never be a source of dread, pain or injury.

How does it affect daily life.

In Hinduism, religion influences the way people live and view themselves. The very act of living is regarded as an obligatory duty and an opportunity to fulfill the aims of creation and participate in God’s eternal dharma. Tradition holds that religious duty is the primary aim of human life since it is the foundation upon which one develops the wisdom and discretion to pursue wealth and happiness without compromising the chances of liberation.

Buddhism

    Buddhism, founded in the late 6th century B.C.E. by Siddhartha Gautama (the "Buddha"), is an important religion in most of the countries of Asia.

Holy books or book

    The Tripitaka (Pali Canon), Mahayana Sutras and the Tibetan Book of the Dead are three major noncanonical Buddhist texts. The Pali Canon, which means “the word of Buddha,” includes some of the Buddha's discourse, but it also incorporates the teachings of his pupils.

Origin


    The origin of Buddhism points to one man, Siddhartha Gautama, the historical Buddha, who was born in Lumbini (in present-day Nepal) during the 5th century BCE.May 20, 2014


    Buddhism does not teach of a creator god, nor of a beginning to man or the universe. "The Creation is cyclical, having no start and no end. For Buddhists, it is part of the wheel of suffering to which we are attached through rebirth. Creation is seen as just part of this wheel"





Movement

Buddhism is a world religion, which arose in and around the ancient Kingdom of Maghad (now in Bihar, India), and is based on the teachings of who was deemed a "Buddha" ("Awakened One"). Buddhism spread outside of Magadha starting in the Buddha's lifetime.

Belief


    The basic doctrines of early Buddhism, which remain common to all Buddhism, include the "four noble truths": existence is suffering (dukhka) suffering has a cause, namely craving and attachment (trishna) there is a cessation of suffering, which is nirvana; and there is a path to the cessation of suffering

Practices

Buddhism incorporates a variety of rituals and practices, which are intended to aid in the journey to enlightenment and bring blessings on oneself and others. While some activities are unique to certain expressions of Buddhism, there are others that are found in most of the popular forms of the belief system.

Code of conduct

Moral conduct for Buddhists differs according to whether it applies to the laity or to the Sangha or clergy. A lay Buddhist should cultivate good conduct by training in what are known as the "Five Precepts". These are not like, say, the ten commandments, which, if broken, entail punishment by God. The five precepts are training rules, which, if one were to break any of them, one should be aware of the breech and examine how such a breech may be avoided in the future. The resultant of an action often referred to as Karma depends on the intention more than the action itself. It entails less feelings of guilt than its Judeo-Christian counterpart. Buddhism places a great emphasis on 'mind' and it is mental anguish such as remorse, anxiety, guilt etc. which is to be avoided in order to cultivate a calm and peaceful mind.

Final resting place

How does it affect daily life?

The teachings of the Buddha have been a way of life for millions of people in the East for over two and a half thousand years. Yet, in the West, it is only comparatively recently that many have turned away from materialism to seek answers in Buddhism. Part of the reason for this development may well lie in Buddhism’s age-old refusal to demand blind faith from its followers. As the Buddha himself always insisted that people see for themselves the truth of his teachings, we hope that you may be encouraged by this brief introduction to explore further for yourself the rich and varied religious philosophy that is Buddhism.

Judaism

Judaism has about 13 million followers throughout the world, mostly in USA and Israel. Aproximately 270,100 people in the UK said that their religious identity was Jewish (2011 census).

Judaism originated in the Middle East over 3500 years ago.

Holy books or book

    Holy Books. The most holy Jewish book is the Torah the first five books of the Hebrew Bible which was revealed by God to Moses on Mount Sinai over 3,000 years ago. The Torah, together with the Talmud (commentary on the Torah), give the Jewish people rules for everyday life.

Origin

    The origins of Judaism lie in the Bronze Age polytheistic Ancient Semitic religions, specifically Canaanite religion, a syncretization with elements of Babylonian religion and of the worship of Yahweh reflected in the early prophetic books of the Hebrew Bible.


Movement

Jewish religious movements sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times.

Beliefs

    Judaism thus begins with ethical monotheism: the belief that God is one and is concerned with the actions of humankind. According to the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), God promised Abraham to make of his offspring a great nation.

Practices

Jewish religious practice. The Jewish religion expects the highest standards of personal and moral behaviour. But there are also particular rituals, which are distinctive to Jews and the two most obvious are Shabbat, keeping the Sabbath, and Kashrut,

Code of conduct

Judaism is not just a set of beliefs about G-d, man and the universe. Judaism is a comprehensive way of life, filled with rules and practices that affect every aspect of life: what you do when you wake up in the morning, what you can and cannot eat, what you can and cannot wear, how to groom yourself, how to conduct business, who you can marry, how to observe the holidays and Shabbat, and perhaps most important, how to treat G-d, other people, and animals. This set of rules and practices is known as halakhah.

Confucianism

    The philosopher Confucius (or Kongzi, c. 551 to c. 479 BCE) is the recognized founder of Confucianism, also referred to as the Ru-jia doctrine or School of Literati as it is known by Western scholars

Holly book

    Chu Hsi (1130-1200), a major Neo-Confucian thinker, designated four texts as containing the central ideas of Confucian thought: two chapters from the Book of Rites, namely, the Great Learning, the Doctrine of the Mean; the Analects, and Mencius.

Origin


Today elements of Confucianism are present in the societies of China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and several other countries today. The basic history of Confucianism, as well as its basic tenets, will aid in understanding its impact in Korea.

Movement


With the start of the communist regime in China in 1949, many of the leading intellectuals left the mainland to Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the United States. Notable figures of this second generation (1950–1979) include individuals like Tang Junyi, Mou Zongsan, and Xu Fuguan, all three students of Xiong Shili. Mou Zongsan, in particular, was well-versed in the ancient Chinese philosophical traditions and argued that Kant was, in many ways, a Western Confucius. These three, together with Zhang Junmai, issued in 1958 the New Confucian Manifesto consolidating their beliefs and drawing attention to their philosophical movement.

Belief

    Confucianism was the code of ethics adopted as the official religion of most of the great empires in the region since the Han Dynasty. Everybody has some sort of religious belief. Confucianism provides a simple skeleton of ethical and religious beliefs that most Chinese flesh out by other religions such as Daoism.

Practices

The practice of Confucianism can involve various forms of temple and ancestor worship, but need not have an explicitly religious dimension. Most fundamentally, Confucianism encompasses ethical conduct in the family and society. Confucius highlighted the importance of hierarchy, respect, and role-based reciprocity in interpersonal relations. The importance of family and of filial piety is most central. Core relationships delineated in Confucian thought include: Emperor-Subject, Husband-Wife, Father-Son, and Elder Brother-Younger Brother. The family bond transcends death, as is evident in elaborate mourning and funerary rites and the ongoing veneration of the deceased. Basic ideals of harmony are extended beyond the family to society and the state and human relations are to be ordered in accordance with Confucius’ formulation of the Golden Rule: “Do not do unto others what you would not have them do unto you.” In traditional Confucian thought the Emperor-Subject relationship maps onto that of Father-Child; today, respect for political authority in Confucian societies is widespread as long as it is deemed just.

Code of conduct

A moral and ethical system aimed at human development, Confucianism is a widely influential philosophical system, constituting a formative cultural influence in many nations on the Pacific rim including China, Taiwan, Singapore, Vietnam, Korea, Japan, and to a lesser extent Malaysia and the Philippines. It's a key social force in China.

Christianity

Founders

The founder is Jesus Christ

Holy book

Bible

Origin

Judaea, Nazareth

Movement

Spreaded across Roman Empire and on to the rest of the world

Beliefs

There beliefs are to believe in only one God, which is God, Jesus is our saver, he was also reserected, and to treat other how other people want to be treated.

Practices

To pray, go to church, read the bible and to believe.

Code of conduct

The 10 commandments

Final resting place

Heaven and hell.

Islam

    The prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him ), who was born in A.D. 570 at Mecca, in Saudi Arabia, is often regarded as the founder of Islam. He was the last prophet to be sent by Allah. However the first prophet was Adam.

Holy books

    Qur'an

    The Qur'an is the holy book for Muslims, revealed in stages to the Prophet Muhammad over 23 years. Qur'anic revelations are regarded by Muslims as the sacred word of God, intended to correct any errors in previous holy books such as the Old and New Testaments.Jul 14, 2011

Origin

    The Prophet Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. The rise of Islam is intrinsically linked with the Prophet Muhammad, believed by Muslims to be the last in a long line of prophets that includes Moses and Jesus.

Beliefs

    Belief in the Books of God: Muslims believe that God revealed holy books or scriptures to a number of God's messengers. These include the Quran (given to Muhammad), the Torah (given to Moses), the Gospel (given to Jesus), the Psalms (given to David), and the Scrolls (given to Abraham).

Practice

Certain sacred practices and rituals are very important to Muslims. They are a significant way that followers of Islam remember history, express conviction, and grow in devotion.

Some rituals are practiced daily, like prayer; others are practiced annually, like those aligned with specific Islamic holidays. The religious practices and rituals of Islam are relatively few in number, but great in importance. The Five Pillars of Islam are five practices regarded by all sects of the Islamic religion as essential to the Muslim faith.

Code of conduct

Forgiving Spirit

The Quran and Hadith (recorded sayings of the Prophet Muhammad) both heavily emphasize the importance of being forgiven and being willing to forgive others. In Surat 24:22, the Quran says, "Pardon [people] and overlook [their faults]. Don't you love that Allah should forgive you?" Forgiveness, according to the Quran, should take such a central role in everyday life that an individual not only readily forgives others for any offense, but is so focused on the good in others that they do not even notice the offense. If the offense is intentional and cannot be ignored, forgiveness is still required in addition to repaying the offense with kindness and good deeds.

Respect for Family

Family is a very fundamental element of Muslim society. The Quran particularly emphasizes respect for one's parents, especially mothers; in fact, the Prophet said that paradise is at the feet of mothers. Respect for the family is also very important. Muslim children have a right to be raised in a loving, nurturing environment, and the Quran says, "Allah commands you to ... give to the relatives." When parents become ill or elderly, nursing homes are never an option; Muslims consider it a very great privilege to care for them. Becoming impatient or annoyed with elderly parents is regarded as despicable. Instead, the Quran says one should pray, "My Lord, have mercy on them as they brought me up when I was little."

Piety

Muslims are expected to place Islam at the center of their lives and Allah at the front of their minds. This is fulfilled primarily through adherence to the five pillars of Islam, which include a proclamation of faith (shahadah), daily prayer (salat), fasting (sawm), charity (zakat) and a pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj). In addition to these basic duties, Muslims should also display piety in everyday life by giving freely to help the needy, being kind and generous with one's spouse and even treating animals gently. It is also important to read the Quran daily and memorize as much as possible.

Responsibility

Muslims are responsible for their own actions, for the spiritual health and well-being of their community and for teaching non-Muslims about Islam. Islam heavily stresses free will; on the day of judgement, when each Muslim meets Allah, he or she alone is held responsible for adhering to Islam's teachings. Within the community, Muslims are responsible for preserving the social order by marrying a suitable mate, raising good Muslim children, participating in communal prayers and working together for the greater good. Outside the ummah, Muslims are responsible for sharing their faith in a non-aggressive way. The Quran encourages Muslims, "O you who believe, be upright for Allah, bearers of witness with justice."

Final resting place

Mecca