Reform Movements

By: Logan Robbins

Transcendentalism

Transcendentalism urged people to transcend, or overcome, the limits of their minds and let their souls reach out to embrace the beauty of the universe.

The Utopian Movement

Utopia, or Ideal society; They decided that the solution was to separate from society and form this. (Utopia)

The Utopian Movement, in the same spirit as the other reform movements, more than 100,000 American men, women and children between 1820 and 1860 searched for alternative lifestyles.

The Brook Farm Community

Cooperative living and the absence of private property characterized these communities. Perhaps the best known were Brook Farm, a cooperative community in Massachusetts, and the Oneida Community, religious society in upstate New York.
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Transcendentalist Authors

Edgar Allen Poe, he was a writer of the 19th century but he also worked as a literary critic and editor. In his lifetime, he had the distinction of being one of the first American writers with more cultural cache in Europe than in the United states. He made a change by teaching literature to people in his life time.


Nathaniel Hawthorne, in his early writing career he moved with his family and formed a friendship with with the author Herman Melville best known for Moby Dick. During this time, Hawthorne enjoyed his most productive period as a writer publishing The House of Seven Gables, BLithedale Romance and Tanglewood Tales. Then later during the 1852 election, Hawthorne wrote a campaign biography for his college friend Franklin Pierce, when Pierce was elected president he appointed Hawthorne an American Consul a reward.


Noah Webster, he accomplished many things in his life. In 1801, Webster started defining words that AMericans use. lHe did this because Americans spoke and used different words differently than the English, and to help people who lived in different parts of the country to speak and spell the same way.