American History

by Sergio Martinez

Abolitionist Societies

First American society abolitionist was founded in Philadelphia on April 15, 1775. The society changed its name to the Pennsylvanian Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and the Relief of Free Negroes held in Bondage in 1784. Anthony Benezet called the society together two years after he persuaded the Quakers to create the Negro School in Philadelphia. He also persuaded the Philadelphia Quaker Yearly Meeting to take an official stance against slavery in 1758. Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush were the leading members of the Pennsylvania abolitionist society. William Lloyd Garrison was an American journalistic crusader who also helped lead the abolitionist campaign against slavery. Garrison at first thought that the society's goal was to promote freedom for the slaves but he grew disillusioned when he realized that their true goal was to minimize the amount of free slaves in the united states. Frederick Douglass attended the abolitionist meetings, they asked him to tell his stories as a slave, he became a regular anti-slavery lecturer at the meetings. Sojourner Truth also was a part of the abolition, she is best known for her speeches on racial inequality. she fought for women's rights as well. Angelina and Sarah Gremke were among the first abolitionists to recognize the importance of women's rights and speak and write about the cause of female equality. Henry David Thoreau was an american writer who wrote the walden novel. Charles Sumner stood up beside the republicans against the south.

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Rise of Religion

The Mennonites, German Baptists whose beliefs resembled those of the English and Quakers, founded Germantown half a century earlier. They argued that it was hypocritical for whites, especially Christians, to participate in the enslavement that they had themselves so feared for generations at the hands of the Turks on the high seas. British Quakers were the first religious group to repudiate slavery and to forbid slave owning among their membership. They provided much of the leadership of the abolitionist movement, in Britain and North America. But Their influence was limited by their small numerical strength. John Wesley who founded the Methodist movement, was able to convert the small Quaker protest into a mass movement.

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Northwest Ordinance of 1787

The Northwest Ordinance was an act passed by Congress in 1787 that provided rules for governing the Northwest Territory, which was land north of the Ohio River and west of the Alleghenies. It had rules for how parts of the territory could eventually become states, and it paved the way for new states to be added to the Union with the same rights and status as the other existing states. The ordinance provided for civil liberties and public education within the new territories, but did not allow slavery. Southerners who owned slaves were willing to go along with this because they hoped that the new states would be populated by white settlers from the South. They believed that even though these Southerners would have no slaves of their own, they would not join the growing abolition movement of the North.
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Harriet Tubman & Harriet Beecher

Harriet Tubman was a slave from Maryland who escaped slavery in 1849 in the South and became a leading abolitionist before the American Civil War. She led hundreds to freedom in the North on the Underground Railroad. Another important women is Harriet Beecher who wrote the book Uncle Toms Cabin, which was based on the abolitionist movement. she was born on June 14, 1811, in Litchfield, Connecticut. her book talked about family and home, religion and justice. It became the best-selling book of the 19th century and galvanized the abolition movement, leading to the outbreak of the Civil War. It changed public opinion, created characters still talked about, influenced ideas about equity, and fomented revolution from Russia to Cuba.