13.8 Decline and Renewal

Some U.S. Inner city neighborhoods have been gentrified.


inner city neighborhoods have a relatively high share of a metropolitan areas serious crimes, such as murder.


several million people are homeless in the United States. The most people are homeless because they cannot afford housing and have no regular income. Homelessness may have been sparked by family problems or job loss.

Inner city challenges

Inner city residents are frequently referred to as a permanent underclass because they are trapped in an unending cycle of hardships.

Inadequate job skills

Inner city residents are increasingly unable to compete for jobs. They lack technical skills needed for most jobs because fewer than half compete high school.

Culture of property

unwed mothers give birth two-thirds of the babies in the U.S. Inner city neighborhoods, and 80% of children in the inner city live with only one parent.
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Decline and Renewal: Five Mile Creek Greenway Partnership, 1
Transforming Sydney - The Bays Precinct Urban Renewal Project