Acids & Bases

Mariah & Alicia

Acids

-Lewis and Arrhenius

  • -The Lewis acid accept an electron pair, meaning they are electron attracting


  • -The Arrhenius method of acids for hydrogen ions in water solution with equal bases forming hydroxide ions

-The difference between a strong acid and a weak acid

  • The strong acid almost completely dissolves in water producing a low concentration of hydrogen ions.
  • A weak acid partially dissolves to produce a low concentration of hydrogen ions.


-Examples of a strong acids


  1. Hydrochloric
  2. nitric
  3. sulfuric acids


-Examples of weak acids

  1. Formic
  2. nitrous
  3. hydrogen sulfate ion


*Chemical and physical properties of acids

-Physical properties

  • Sour Taste
  • Light touch
  • Odor


-Chemical properties


The use of a chemical indicator. For example: bromothomal blue, turns acid yellow


-How to tell if a substance is acidic


  • Ph paper test,

-If acidic it will turn pink, if not it will turn blue.

Bases

-Lewis and Arrhenius


  • The Lewis model of a base is when a atom donates pair of electrons to for a Lewis adduct.


  • The Arrhenius model of a base is a substance that when added to water increases the concentration of OH ions.


-The difference of a strong and weak base


  • A strong base completely dissolves into a metal ion and a hydroxide ion
  • A weak base only partially dissolves in water

-Examples


*Strong bases

  1. Sodium hydroxide
  2. Potassium hydroxide
  3. barium hydroxide


*Weak bases

  1. ammonia
  2. methylamine
  3. pyridine


-Chemical and Physical Properties of Bases


  1. Bitter taste
  2. No Smell
  3. slippery texture
  4. Reacts to many oils and fat


-*Examples of how to tell if a substance is a base or not


  • Ph paper,
  • litmus paper

Examples

Reactions

What products do you get when acid and base react? What is this type of reacton called?

When a acid and base react you get a neutral reactant. They cancel each other out.


This reaction is called Neutralization.


A real life example would be sodium in water, producing salt water.

Measurement

-To measure the strength of acids and bases you must test it with Ph paper.


-The range for an acidic, base and neutral solution is Acidic less than 7, Neutral is 7 and base is 8-14



Indicators

Acid and Base indicators are blueberries , lipstick and washing powders, because they will all change colors depending on if you're testing an acid or base.


It changes because each substance reacts different when you test different indicators.

Acid Rain

*Acid rain forms because air pollution from burning fossils fuels go into the air and combine with rain clouds.


*Acid rains damage causes erosion and deforestation .


*Acid rain is found mostly in highly populated regions, because of the greater amount of smog and air pollution.


*To improve the acid rain problem you should car pool to save fossil fuels for entering the air.