The Age of Industrialization

Emily Wochnick

Andrew Carnegie

Who: Andrew Carnegie was an Entrepreneur, and a Philanthropist. He was one of the Captains of Industry.


What: Andrew Carnegie was in the steel making business.


When: From November 25th, 1835- August 11, 1919 and he became rich during the Gilded Age.


Where: He was born in Dunfermline, Scotland and he died at Lenox, Massachusetts. Andrew's first Steel Company was in Braddock, Pennsylvania and was called Edgar Thomson Steel Works in the mid 1870's.


Why: Andrew Carnegie was important because the steel made railroads, automobiles,

and helped with transportation.

Henry Bessemer

Who: Henry Bessemer was a famous inventor who was known for his development of the Bessemer Process for the manufacture of steel.


What: Henry invented the Bessemer Process uses oxygen in air blown through molten pig iron to burn off the impurities and then creates steel.


When: From January 19th, 1813- March 15, 1898 and he described the Bessemer process on August 24th, 1856 in a meeting of the British Association in Cheltenham.


Where: Henry was born in Charlton, United Kingdom, and he died in London at the age of 85. This invention helped steel factories all over America even Andrew Carnegie used it.


Why: Henry Bessemer was very important because he made all or most steel factories better by making the Bessemer Process. It was also important that Henry made the Process becuase steel was cheaper than iron during the Gilded Age.

The Great Railroad Strike of 1877

Who: The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 envolved the workers who were building the railroads who weren't getting paid.


Where: Violent strikes broke out in Baltimore, San Fransico, Chicago, Kansas City , Pittsburgh, and St. Louis. On July 13th, the Baltimore and Ohio line cut the wages of all employees making more than a dollar a day by 10 percent.


What: The Great Railroad Strike was in many states because railroad company employees wanted more money.


When: The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was the country's first major rail strike and witnessed the first general strike in the nations history. It happened after the Financial Panic of 1873, when businesses began cutting salaries and wages. The cutbacks prompted strikes and violence with lasting consequences.


Why: The strike was very important because even though the strike would be broken within a few weeks, it helped set the stage for later violence in the 1880's and 1890's.

Central Pacific Railroad Company

Who: The Central Pacific Railroad Company was planned by Theodore Judah. The Central Pacific Railroad was authorized by congress in1862. It was financed and build through 4 businessmen Leland Stanford, Collis Huntington, Charles Croker, and Mark Hopkins. Charles Croker was in change of the construction of the railroads.


What: The Central Pacific was a railroad Company building a railroad with the Union Pacific. The Central Pacific would build east from California and the Union Pacific would build west from Missouri. This railroad would be the Transcontinental railroad which is a railroad that crosses the United States.


When: The Congress authorized the railroad in 1862. The operation started April 1st, 1863-1885 but continued as an SP leased line until 1959. "Golden Strike" connected the Western railroad to the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory, Utah and was hammered on May 10th, 1869. In 1885 the Central Pacific Railroad Company was leased by the Southern Pacific Company.


Where: The Central Pacific Railroad Company build east from California, and the Union Pacific build west from Missouri.


Why: The Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroad companies built the railroad so they could link the East Coast and West Coast together. This allowed natural resources from the west to move back east, and for people and goods from the east to move west.

Citations

Andrew Carnegie: "Andrew Carnegie," Wikipedia. At http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Carnegie. Wikimedia Foundation, 02 January, 2014. Web. 01 February, 2014.


Henry Bessemer: "Henry Bessemer," Wikipedia. At http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Bessemer. Wikimedia Foundation, 26 January, 2014, Web. 03 February, 2014.


The Great Railroad Strike of 1887: "Digital History," Digital History. At http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3189. N.P.,Web. 02 February, 2014.


Central Pacific Railroad Company: "Central Pacific Railroad," Wikipedia. At http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Pacific_Railroad. Wikimedia Foundation, 27 January, 2014, Web. 05 February, 2014.