Tigers

By A.S.

DESCRIPTION

  • Tigers are mammals.
  • Tigers are divided into eight sub-species. Each of the eight sub-species has or had its own name, geographic range and characteristics.
  • The species are Siberian, Bengal, South China, Sumatran, Caspian, Bali, Javan, and the Indochinese tigers. (Rebecca Stefoff page 30 and 31)
  • They have red-orange fur with black stripes.
  • Tigers are the largest most ferocious of all cat species.
  • The males weigh around 306 kgs (647-650lbs) and the females usually weigh less than the males. (Project tiger).
  • Their body ranges around 275 to 290cm and females around 260cm. (Project tiger)
  • Tigers most unusual characteristic is communicating with females using their tails.

FOOD CHAIN AND HABITAT

  • Tigers feed on buffalo, gaur, wild deer, antelope, Indian porqupines, crab, fish and very rarely they eat cubs if they cant find their prey.
  • Tigers live in deep jungles.
  • They are carnivore.
  • They are predetors.
  • Tiger's terrain is deep forests where there is enough food, water and protection.
  • Tigers are vesatile for any climate but it mostly depends on the species. Siberian tigers live father to the north, where temparature goes down to -33 degree celcius.
  • During the winter a Siberian tiger's fur grows extremely long and thich to protect them from the cold climate.
  • Tigers have their own territory, it rubs its scent on trees and rocks and urinates on them too, to let the other animals know that it is the tiger's territory.
  • A deep growl is a warning to rival tigers.
  • Snarling is a defensive sound.
  • Young cubs make hissing and mewing sounds.

ADAPTATIONS

  • The females live in cozy caves which are comfertable for its cubs. The males just live outside. Since tigers are very ferocious, they dont need protection.
  • Tiger's most distinctive feature is its striped coat which gives it a camouflage which biologists call cryptic coloration ("cryptic" means hidden). It mimics the paterns of sun-dappled shadow that occur in tall grass or forest. (Rebecca Stefoff page 60)
  • Tigers teeth are its most formidable weapon, driven by powerful neck and jaw muscles, their teeth are so sharp, they can bite through a bone.
  • Tigers are fond of swimming in fresh water lakes and they are excellent swimmers.
  • A female tiger moves to another safe place when she decidces than one place is not safe for her cubs.
  • Tigers are capable of hearing upto 20 hertz. (Seaworld.org/animal)
  • Tigers are both strong and extremly flexible which gives them an advantage in gunting for its prey while twisting and turning.
  • Since meat digested faster than plants tigers have a smaller intestine.
  • Adult tigers separte and hunt alone.


REASONS FOR ENDAGERMENT AND CRITICAL INFORMATION

  • Three of the eight sub-species have become extinct. Several others are at the edge of disappearing forever.
  • At the beginning of the 20th century, some wildlife scientists had recorded that there were more than 100,000 tigers in the world and 40,000 of them were in India but by the beginning of 21st century there were only about 5,000 to 7,000 tigers.
  • They were killed by British hunters and Indian princes.
  • They are illegally poached and smuggled by Chinese vendors and Indian political people.
  • The 20th century brought explosive human population who needed more furniture and space to live which caused habitat loss led by deforestation.
  • After the Indian government figured the population of tigers, they were the first country to establish sanctuaries for its tigers in 1973.
  • The two most safest places for tigers to live are zoos and sanctuaries.
  • The WWF (World Wildlife Fund) and the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) found a program in India called Project Tiger to help save the tigers.
  • The purpose of Project Tiger was to buy areas of Tiger habitat and preserve them from development.
  • India began with 8 reserves and now has 23. It also has 40+ National Parks that includes Tiger habitat. (Rebecca Stefoff page 82)
  • Tigress gives birth to only three to four cubs at a time. Cubs have hard time surviving in the wild from predators. Very few cubs become adults.
  • Cubs also face danger from predators in water when they swim or go near waterholes.
  • When a male tiger does not find a prey, it kill its own cubs.
  • Zoo tigers could, if the species failed in the wild, someday be use as a source to be reintroduced into nature. The reason captive tigers are not now used to enlarge the tiger population is that there's no place to release them.