Keystone Review Guide

Kaymoni Kent & Daijah Barrett

Water and its characteristics

Water (H20) is the largest molecule on Earth. A lot of things can dissolve in water. Water can be in 3 different stages such as solid, liquid, and gas. Adhesion is the
attraction between different substances. Cohesion is the attraction between the same kind of substance. Also polarity enables substances to dissolve in water. Heat storage is the process of water absorbing heat slowly and hold on to heat longer. In addition, Ph is based on the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution ( Ex. Acidic-Basic). Finally Solution is a mixture of evenly distributed substances.


Macromolecules

Macromolecules is a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer. The types of Macromolecules ares carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Nucleic acids are (DNA & RNA )molecules that let living organisms to reproduce genetic info from one generation to the next. Carbohydrates are molecules that provide fuel and build structures in the body. Also, lipids are molecules that store energy and regulate the body's metabolic processes. In addition, proteins are Molecules that provide structural support, storage, transport, cell communication, movement, and defense


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are molecules that provide fuel and build structures in the body. Carbohydrates are found in mostly foods ( which some people call carbs). The ratio for carbohydrates it 1:2:1. This is Carbon to hydrogen to oxygen.

Proteins

Proteins are molecules that provide structural support, storage, transport, cell communication, movement, and defense. Some proteins are Keratin, Actin and Myosin, Receptor, Antibodies, Hemoglobin (carries oxygen from your lungs to body tissues), Ion channel, and Enzymes proteins. They can fold into compact shapes. The shape matters for them not the size.


Lipids and Fats

Lipids are a group of molecules such as fats, waxes, fat-soluble vitamins (which are vitamins A, D, E, and K). Lipids are monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and more. Unsaturated fatty acids are found in liquid form when at room temperature. Saturated fatty acid are found in solid form when at room temperature.


Nucliec Acids

Nucleic acids (DNA & RNA) are molecules that enable living organisms to reproduce genetic information from one generation to the next. RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) are made from monomers known as nucleotides. Nucleotides are The building blocks for Nucleic acids.


Ezymes

What are they???

Enzymes are specialized PROTEINS. They also speed reactions. They do this by lowering the activation energy. Enzymes are catalysts. This means that they get things going in your body and help enable reactions. The shape of the enzyme is "lock and key". Like in picture 1 and 2.


The End!!!

By Daijah Barrett (DB Dai) and Kaymoni A. Kent (Zendaya)
You already Know!!