reconstuction

amendments

13th-Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

14th-plays such a huge part because it doesn’t allow slavery by any means in any state alongside with it permitting life, liberty or justice to all who deserve through the due process of law.

15th-The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

plans for the south

lincolns plan- (Dec. 8, 1863) a proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction for those areas of the Confederacy occupied by Union armies. It offered pardon, with certain exceptions, to any Confederate who would swear to support the Constitution and the Union. Once a group in any conquered state equal in number to one tenth of that state's total vote in the presidential election of 1860 took the prescribed oath.

johnsond plan-His amnesty proclamation (May 29, 1865) was more severe than Lincoln's; it disenfranchised all former military and civil officers of the Confederacy and all those who owned property worth $20,000 or more and made their estates liable to confiscation. The obvious intent was to shift political control in the South from the old planter aristocracy to the small farmers and artisans.

congress-

An outraged Northern public believed that the fruits of victory were being lost by Johnson's lenient policy. When Congress convened (Dec. 4, 1865) it refused to seat the Southern representatives. Johnson responded by publicly attacking Republican leaders and vetoing their Reconstruction measures. The Civil Rights Act (Apr. 9, 1866), designed to protect African Americans from legislation such as the black codes, and the Freedmen's Bureau Bill were both passed over Johnson's veto. Doubts as to the constitutionality of the Civil Rights Act led the radicals to incorporate most of its provisions in the Fourteenth Amendment that the ex-Confederate states were in a state of civil disorder, and hence, had not held valid elections. It also maintained that Reconstruction was a congressional. The radicals solidified their position by winning the elections of 1866. When every Southern state (except Tennessee) refused to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment and protect the rights of its black citizens, the stage was set for more severe measures.

black code

The control of white over black, however, seemed to be restored, as each of the newly elected state legislatures enacted statutes severely limiting the freedom and rights of the blacks. These laws, known as black codes restricted the ability of blacks to own land and to work as free laborers and denied them most of the civil and political rights enjoyed by whites. Many of the offices in the new governments, moreover, were won by disenfranchised Confederate leaders, and the President, rather than ordering new elections, granted pardons on a large scale.

racism

voting rights-They used violence, vote fraud, gerrymandering, literacy tests, white primaries,poll tax, and among others.

The Ku Klux Klan-formed in 1865. Their terrorism of all African Americans, Homosexuals, and immigrants began after the confederate states lost to the North in the Civil War. They would raid houses at night when blacks were sleeping and lynch the family. They would do this while wearing white sheets around their bodies and sometimes they would dress their horses in white sheets as well. They did this to hide their identity. Lynching was not the only thing that this group would do. They would terrify white civil rights workers and Blacks with cross burning, bombings, beatings, death threats, and murder. They would drive Blacks out of their communities by burning houses and barns and destroying crops. From 1870 to 1915 the Klan was not so popular, but in 1916 in Atlanta, Georgia the Klan was reorganized. The new group then started to discriminate all Roman Catholics, Jews, foreigners, Communists, and organized labor. Today, this group has been discriminating the same religions ever since the end of the Civil War.

the end of the reconstruction

President Hayes kept his campaign promise to remove federal troops from the South, ending the period known as Reconstruction. The order was given on May 1st, 1877. The decision to end Reconstruction and return the rule to Southerners, soon resulted in the disenfranchisement of the Blacks in the South.