Necrotizing fasciitis

By Luis and Adina

Definition

Rapid progressive inflammatory infection of fascia with secondary necrosis

-Fascia:fibrous tissue enclosing a muscle and othe organs

-necrosis-death of most cells in organ tissue due to the disease

Infection

The infection begins with an area of erythema that quickly spreads over a course of hours to days it gets red then the redness quickly spreads, and its margins and moves o into the part of the normal skin. As the infection progresses, the skin near the site it gets purplish discoloration and multiples identical patches expand to produce a large area of gangrenous skin, as the erythema continues to spread.

Gangrene

Dead tissue caused by an infection or lack of blood flow

background/History

Early reports where reported in the 5th century it appeared in the American civil war they would find purple or blue spot on the skin of a person it clearer and got worser and started to spread rapidly in increasing circles.

Pathophysiology


Researchers have found that necrotizing fasciitis is usually polymicrobial rather than monomicrobial.

Type 1- a slow process that evolves over days

Type 2- group A streptococcus bacteria

Type 3- vibrio gram-negative rods


-A slow evolving bruise on abdominal wall

-Serous discharge

Etiology

-Break in skin barrier

-Chronic skin disorder (eczema,psoriasis)

-Acute injuries like surgical incisions

Prognosis

-Depends on what they have for example: age,medical problems,location of the infection,how much it spreads

-Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment will determine the outcome.

-It has poor prognosis if left untreated and undertreated it may result to limb loss,scarring and disability also it may also lead to organ failure and also death.

-stain the puss

Epidemiology

-bacteria

-infection

-tissue die

Physical exam

They ask about symptoms they have had,look at the skin and see medical history.

"Wound awareness, take care of that cut"

Big image

Education

Our goal is to spread awareness of a disease that is often misdiagnosed. People who are more susceptible to necrotizing fasciitis often have underlying causes such as diabetes, post operative patients, or those who suffer from alcoholism.

Anatomy and physiology

The bacteria affects the subcutanous tissues by releasing toxins that deteriorate fat and muscle.

-musculoskeletal system- breakdown of muscle tissue

-Nervous system- breakdown of nerves

-integumentary system- breakdown of the skin

Report and stats


- most common in the immunocompromised

-spread with any bodily fluids of an infected person



-affects about 0.40 of adults and 0.08 of children

-Mortality rates vary between 20-80% depending on how fast it has progressed

- 500-1500 cases are reported annually

-4 out of every one million people are affected

- more fatal in people older than 35

- mortality rate can be lowered as much as 40% if correctly diagnosed within the first 12-24 hours

- on average a patient receives about 33 debridments and skin grafts

Infectious diseases

A very rapid progression of necrotic tissue as it spreads into subcutaneous tissues that can lead to septic shock, delirium, or even death

Sign and symptoms

fatigue and weakness
fever with chills and sweating
nausea and vomiting
dizziness
infrequent urination
As the infection progresses, there is inflammation
Blisters
Confusion
Dehydration
Hypotension
Fever
General feeling of being ill



necrotizing fasciitis

Symptoms

  • Diarrhea
  • Intense pain in the affected area
  • Skin becomes warm (hot) and red
  • Skin coloration changes, and becomes violet
  • Subcutaneous tissues die (necrosis)
  • Vomiting

Diagnose

First start by looking at your skin

The doctor will perform several tests to diagnose the condition.

They will take a biopsy (a small sample) of the affected skin tissue for examination.

They will also take blood tests or a CT scan may help your doctor make a diagnosis.

The CT scan can show whether your skin has thickened.

Blood tests can show if there has been damage to your muscles.

Treatment

Treatment begins with strong antibiotics which are delivered directly into your veins. Unfortunately, if the tissue decay means that the antibiotics might not be able to reach all of the infected areas then it’s important for doctors to remove any dead tissue immediately. In some cases, amputation of one or more limbs may be necessary to help stop the spread of the infection