Atlantic Revolutions Comparisons

By: Ashley Hinson

Relationships Between Mother Countries

The American Revolution

The American Colonies no longer wanted to remain bound to Britain because of the taxations, trade regulations and the fact that they were not represented in the constitution, yet Parliament still tried to govern them.


The Haitain Revolution

When Haiti was finally property of the French, the Haitians did not aprove of the new laws and restrictions that were put into place, as could be seen by the many rebellions, but they still wanted to be a colony of France.


The Chilean Revolution

Chile wanted to try self-governing instead of being ruled by Spain, but they did not want to be fully seperated from Spain. However, there were two different groups withing Chile: the pro-independence criollos who wanted independence from Spain, and the royal criollos who supported Spain's rule.

Important Leaders

The American Revolution: American Military Leaders


  • George Washington was one of the leaders in the American Revolution. He led a small colonial force during the French and Indian War and they were sent to capture a fort in western Pennsylvania, but were defeated by the French.
  • Nathanael Greene was a friend of Washington's and one of the most respected generals of the Revolutionary War. He served in a small Rhode Island militia unit, and later commanded the Rhode Island militia, becoming a brigadier general in the Continental Army allowing him to participate in the siege of Boston in 1776.

Colonist


  • Paul Revere's political involment comes from his connections to local organizations and business patrons. He was friends with activists James Otis and Dr. Joseph Warren. In the year before the Revolution, Revere gathored information by "watching the moves of British Soldiers" and on the night of April 18, 1775 he rode to Lexington to warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams of the British approach. When the war began he served as lieutenant colonial in the Massachusets State Train of Artillery and commander of Castle Island in Boston Harbor.


Haitian Revolution


  • Toussaint Louverture was a free black and part of the slave elite before he became a military leader under the Spanish. His army grew to several thousand troops and soon they abandonded the Spanish for the French. When a peace treaty was signed by Spain and France, and Spain gave France their colony, Santo Domingo, allowing Louvertures power to continue to grow. The free black colonists thought Louverture was going to help them gain equality and possibly independence, making the French disagree with letting him control the colony.
  • Francois Makandal led the most significant slave rebellion just before the Revolution; a plot to poison all the whites in the north of the colony. He planned for the plot for the plot to spread to all parts of the colony, mainly to trusted house slaves. Makandal's conspiracy cause a network of resistance among the slaves from different pantaloons and was crucial in the Revolution just three decades later. His story was told among enslaved people and it fueld the idea that resistance could be acomplished in Saint-Domingue.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte was unhappy with the new constitution passed by Louverture when he controlled the colony of Saint-Domingue. The people of Saint-Domingue saw it as a way to reinstall slavery, so they turned against Louverture. Bonaparte used that to his advantage and used the majority of Louvertures troops to help him fight against Saint-Domingue for their independence.



The Chilean War


  • Francisco Antonio Garcia Carrasco was the royal Governer of Chile. He was not liked by the people of chile and had been caught in a case of smuggling, extortion and murder. He also extradited the citizens of Lima, Peru. He influenced the chilean peoples need for independence.
  • Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme was the captain of a rival faction that plunged Chile into a civil war. This caused a full fledged campaign for permanent independence and those favoriting independence fought about what kind of and to what degree French revolutionary ideas would be incorperated into the movement.
  • Jose de San Martin became an ally when O'Higgins and some of the chileans fled from Chile because Spanish troops were trying to reconquer Chile. Chile won its formal independence when San Martin defeated the last large Spanish force on Chilean soil at the Battle of Maipu on April 5, 1818.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the New Governments

American Revolution

Strengths:

  • The new Constitution states the rights and liberties of the American people
  • States the aims of the American governement and methods to achive them
  • Defines the powers given to the national government
  • Bill of Rights was passed

Weaknesses:

  • After the states won the Revolution the states had to enforce law and order, collect taxes, pay a large public debt and regulate trade among themselves
  • When developing a new governemnt it was difficult to agree on the way it was going to be set up


Haitian Revolution

Strenghts:

  • Blacks were no longer slaves
  • There was more equality
  • Blacks could have their own land

Weaknesses:

  • All of the plantations and sugar cane fields were destroyed, along with all of the farming tools so they had to replace everything
  • Countries wouldn't trade with them because they didn't consider Haiti independent
  • The French forced Haiti to pay for the damages done to their colony


Chilean Revolution

Strengths:

  • The governement was strengthened by a successful war against the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation
  • Support was broadened by reinstating army officers
  • Great Britain was Chiles main trading partner
  • Britain began to invest in Chile

Weaknesses:

  • Creollos remained divided between O'Higgins and Carreras
  • International split between the oligarchy and the army
  • Political chaos, financial and economic disorder, and lawlessness strengthened the authority figures of the oligarchy

Independence Viewed by the People

The American Revolution

They viewed independence as being completely seperated from Britain because they were tired of being taxed without representaion in the constitution


The Haitian Revolution

They wanted be able to practice Vodou and their own culture. They wanted to be seperated from France, but remain a French colony and be treated equal to the whites as well.


The Chilean Revolution

They viewed independence as the right to self-govern, but still wanted to remain bonded to Spain.

Ideologies Behind the Revolutions

The American Revolution

They wanted to be an independent country and have taxation without representation abolished.


The Haitian Revolution

They wanted all of the free blacks to be treated the same as whites and wanted to keep the slaves even though Louverture was against it.


The Chilean Revolution

They hoped to be able to remain bonded to Spain but be able to self-govern without causing conflict with the already developed social and economic order.

Tying it All Together

Napoleon Bonaparte was involved in the Haitian revolution and his brother, Joseph, was involved in the Chilean revolution, whether it was directly or indirectly as he was on the throne of Spain, Chile's mother country.


When Chile gained its formal independence, Spain did not recognize it until 1844, similar to how France didn't recognize Haiti's independece until 1825.


The Royal Governor of Chile was disliked by his people which could be compared to how the American Colonies grew to not like the king of Britain because his officials and Parliament missinformed him of essential things and how the Haitians thought that their 'leader', Louverture, was finally going to give them freedom, but his new constitution turned them against him.


The people of Chile escaped to Argentina when troops from Peru were trying to reconquer it and the slaves on the plantations in Haiti fled to resist slavery. Chileans wanted to self-govern while the American Colonists wanted to represent themselves in Parliament.


After Chile gained their independence, Britain was one of their main trading partners. Britain even invested in Chile to 'modernize' it. This did not happen with Haiti; other countries wouldn't even trade with them because they didn't believe Haiti to be independent.

Bibliography

McReynolds, V., & Taylor, C. (2011, January 1). 2011 Valparaiso Acculturation (1817-1823) Chilean War of Independence. Retrieved December 12, 2014, from http://arch.ttu.edu/wiki/2011_Valparaiso_Acculturation_(1817-1823)_Chilean_War_of_Independence


Caviedes, C. (2014, December 4). Struggle for independence. Retrieved December 12, 2014, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/111326/Chile/25249/Struggle-for-independence


Saba, N. (2014, September 16). Nathanael Greene (1742-1786). Retrieved December 12, 2014, from http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/history-archaeology/nathanael-greene-1742-1786


The Paul Revere House. (1997). Retrieved December 12, 2014, from https://www.paulreverehouse.org/bio/bio.html


People and Events. (2004, March 30). Retrieved December 12, 2014, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/patriotsday/peopleevents/p_dawes.html


The Constitution of the United States of America. (n.d.). Retrieved December 12, 2014, from http://www.policyalmanac.org/government/archive/constitution.shtml