The Evolution Of Art

Morgan Evans

Musicians Of The Enlightenment

Johann Sebastian Bach was born on March 21st of 1685. He was born in Eisenach, Thuringia, Ernestine Saxon Duchies which is now Germany. Alive during the baroque era, he composed Brandenburg Concertos, The Well-Tempered Clavier, and the Mass in B Minor.


George Frideric Handel was born in Halle, Brandenburg(Germany) on February 23, 1685. During the Baroque period he was most famous for his operas and instrumental compositions. The most celebrated of his piece is Messiah, but he also known for Water Music and Music for the Royal Fireworks.


Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on January 27, 1756 in Salzburg(Austria). He is known for being one of the best composers of his time. Mozart wrote The Magic Flute, Requiem, The Marriage of Figaro, and many others.

Periods Of Art During The Enlightment

The Baroque period began in Italy towards the ending of the 16th century and bled into the 17th century. Baroque paintings could be described as giant, colorful, and full of life. The grand paintings worshiped saints and battles.


The Rococo era began in the mid 17th century. These paintings were more personal, delicate, and charming. Painters who painted portraits depicted nobles in rural areas with their servants and house pets.

Peasant Life

The work life of a peasant varied depending on their location. In the west of Europe serfdom had been mostly abolished. While in Eastern Europe serfs were still forced to work with no award. The new ideas that the Enlightenment brought helped the peasants in Europe slowly gain their freedom.


Unfortunately, the stereotype that the English can not cook originated at this time. Meats made up most of their meals. They did not seem capable of cooking any thing else. Most fruits were sent to the Navy after the discovery that they prevent scurvy. At the time the most popular drinks were tea and coffee. Although, tea was very expensive. A common meal was Gruel which was boiled oatmeal, butter, and often contained alcohol.


Entertainment consisted of mainly literature that discussed the new ideas that sprang up during the Enlightenment. Ideas such as all humans are equal and a more just political system then monarchy.

Impressionism

When artist tried to quickly grasp a moment, similar to photography. Brush strokes were often shown as they tried to dash it down on paper.
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Postimpressionism

A more stylized form of art took place. Painters such as Georges Seurat painted uses dot instead of lines. Other painters such as Vincent van Gogh used bold lines and colors. Many say they can convey feelings through the paintings using post impressionist styles.
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Realism

It is an accurate, detailed, unblemished style of art. It often pictures nature or contemporary life. Gustave Courbet was the first self proclaimed realist painter.
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Romanticism

It shaped western literature and arts after the enlightenment began. The romantic painters incorporated nature and invoked strong emotions in their audience.
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Photography

Ever since the first camera was invented in the early 1800s, humans have been able to take pictures. This is called photography. Photography has many purposes and a common and popular purpose is art.

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Cubism

Artists used geometric shapes and various viewpoints to create abstract illustrations. Pablo Picasso was the pioneer of this intriguing art style. The piece below is a great example of cubism because clear geometrical lines distort the light in the background. The Champs de Mars. La Tour rouge. by Robert Delaunay is part of his Eiffel Tower series. The Delaunays were essential to art's evolution because the duo led the Orphic movement(which included cubism).
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Abstract

Art that does not have a concrete definition of what it physically represents is abstract. Wassily Kandinsky was an influential Russian painter and art theorist. He became famous for his abstract pieces. He was alive during WWI and WWII.
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Dada

This art movement was sparked during the first Great War. The art was obnoxious and outrageous with the pure intention to offend its viewers. In New York City, an artist named Marcel DuChamp joined this movement by photographing a urinal with "R. Mutt 1919" painted on it. He titled it "The Fountain".
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Surrealism

Max Ernst was a pioneer in the surrealism movement. Artists that worked with surrealism claimed that they saw these images in their dreams. Max Ernst's art originated in college when he was a philosophy major and was very interested in the study of dreams. One of my personal favorites is the painting "Angels and Demons". This movement was full of juxtapositions and chaos which emerged during WWII.
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Architecture(The Bauhaus School)

The Bauhaus School believed that to further evolve buildings one must mix science and technology with the design of buildings. The industrial revolution pushed a new world full of new technology. But the traditional buildings remained. Frank Lloyd Wright took these ideas and built many famous buildings out of materials that were unusual at the time. The photograph below shows a house he built in Wisconsin.
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Music

Radios helped distribute music at a fast pace. A new genre of music formed called Jazz. It originated from African Americans who combined African rhythms with western harmonies. Louis Armstrong was a leader in the jazz movement. Europeans embraced the new genre as well.
Louis Armstrong - What A Wonderful World

Citations


Works Cited

Billings, Elliot. "Piano Keys." Flickr. Yahoo!, 12 Apr. 2013. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.

Cudworth, Charles, The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "George Frideric Handel | German-English Composer." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 26 Aug. 2015. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.

Della Croce, Johann Nepomuk. "Mozart C.1780." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 1780. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.

The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Baroque Period | Art." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 3 Jan. 2016. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.

Ellis, Elisabeth Gaynor., Anthony Esler, and Burton F. Beers. World History: Connections to Today: The Modern Era. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003. Print.

Inc, Jalic. "The Enlightenment." - Literature Periods & Movements. USA Today, 2016. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.

Marshall, Robert L. "Johann Sebastian Bach | German Composer." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 3 Feb. 2016. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.

Sadie, Stanley. "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart | Biography, Facts, & Works." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 30 Apr. 2015. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.

"Types of Food in 18th Century England." Types of Food in 18th Century England. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Degas#/media/File:Edgar_Degas_-_The_Ballet_Class_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Seurat#/media/File:A_Sunday_on_La_Grande_Jatte,_Georges_Seurat,_1884.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Courbet#/media/File:Gustave_Courbet_-_Le_D%C3%A9sesp%C3%A9r%C3%A9.JPG

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism#/media/File:Caspar_David_Friedrich_-_Wanderer_above_the_sea_of_fog.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_photography#/media/File:View_from_the_Window_at_Le_Gras,_Joseph_Nic%C3%A9phore_Ni%C3%A9pce.jpg

https://www.google.com/#q=cubism+definition&safe=active&ssui=on

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orphism_(art)#/media/File:Delaunay_ChampDeMars.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wassily_Kandinsky#/media/File:Vassily_Kandinsky,_1912_-_Improvisation_27,_Garden_of_Love_II.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dada#/media/File:Duchamp_Fountaine.jpg

https://www.pinterest.com/Nuchto/max-ernst-paintings/

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frank-lloyd-wright-wausau.jpg

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oGmRKWJdwBc