Architectural Housing Styles

By: Jordan Nugent

Arch

An arch is a structure that spans a space and supports structure and weight below it.

Brackets

A bracket is a structural or decorative member. They can be made of wood, stone, or metal.

Buttress

A projecting support of a stone or brick built against a wall.

Chair Rail

A chair rail is a type of moulding fixed horizontally to the wall around the perimeter of a room.

Chimney

A chimney is a structure which provides ventilation for hot flue gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere.

Column

A column in architecture is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.

Column Capital

The column capital forms the topmost member of a column.

Corbel

A corbel is a structural piece of stone, wood or metal jutting from a wall to carry a superincumbent weight, a type of bracket.

Cupola

A cupola is a small, most often dome-like, structure on top of a building. Often used to provide a lookout or to admit light and air, it usually crowns a larger roof or dome.

Dormer

A dormer is a structural element of a building that protrudes from the plane of a sloping roof surface.

Eaves

The part of the roof that meets the walls of a building.

Facade

A facade is generally one exterior side of a building, usually, but not always, the front.

Fanlight

A fanlight is a window, semicircular or semi-elliptical in shape, with glazing bars or tracery sets radiating out like an open fan. It is placed over another window or a doorway.

Finial

A finial is an element marking the top or end of some object, often formed to be a decorative feature.

Floor Plan

A scale diagram of the arrangement of rooms in one story of a building.

Fluting

Fluting refers to the shallow grooves running vertically along a surface. It typically refers to the grooves running on a column shaft or a pilaster.

Frieze

Frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs.

Lintel

A lintel can be a load-bearing building component, a decorative architectural element, or a combined ornamented structural item.

Masonry

Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar.

Molding

Molding is traditionally made from solid milled wood or plaster but may be made from plastic or reformed wood.

Mullions

A mullion is a vertical or horizontal element that forms a division between units of a window, door, or a screen.

Parapet

A low protective wall along the edge of a roof, bridge, or balcony.

Pediment

A pediment is a triangular gable forming the end of the roof slope over a portico.

Pendant

A pendant vault is a rare form of vault used in late Gothic architecture in which large decorative pendants hang from the vault at a distance from the walls.

Pilaster

A rectangular column projecting from a wall.

Pillar

Pillars are structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below it.

Porch

A porch is a roofed structure, usually open at the sides, projecting from the face of a building and used to protect the entrance.

Portico

A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls.

Quions

Quoins are masonry blocks at corners of a wall.

Rafters

A rafter is one of a series of sloped structural members (beams) that extend from the ridge or hip to the wall plate.

Roof

A roof is part of a building envelope, both the covering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which provides protection from animals and weather.

Sill

The shelf at the bottom of a window frame.

Stoop

A stoop is a small staircase ending in a platform and leading to the entrance of an apartment building or other building.

Stucco

Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water. It is applied wet and it hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as decorative coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture.

Tower

Any structure that is relatively tall in proportion to the dimensions of its base.

Transom Light

Ot is a transverse horizontal structural barmor a crosspiece separating a door from a window above it.

Wainscot

An area of wooden paneling on the lower part of the walls of a room.