Andrew Johnson, US. Grant, 14th Amendment, Freedom B.

14 Amendment

This amendment granted citizenship to freed slaves. There were 5 sections to this amendment each stating what was going to be done. The first section states " No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws". The second section states "Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. The third section states". The third section states "No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States...". The fourth section states "The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned". The fifth section states "The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article".

Freedman Bureau

Lincoln set up the Freedman's Bureau. This federal agency was created during Reconstruction to provide assistance to former slaves and needy whites. It also gave food and clothes to former slaves. President Johnson plan was very similar to Lincoln's plan but when congress started in December 1865, Radical Republicans refuse to admit new southern representatives and thought Johnson's plan was not enough. Congress enlarges Freedmen's Bureau in 1866. Congress passes Civil Rights Act of 1866 which gives citizenship to blacks. Johnson vetoed both the Freedman's Bureau Act and Civil Rights Act. The Republicans banded together to override Johnson's veto.