The Tundra

AP Bio, Madison Stuckey


In the tundra, conditions are cold, with an annual average temperature less than 5 C, and precipitation mostly snow less than 100 mm per year The summer is brief, with temperatures above freezing lasting for only a few weeks at most. However, this "warm" summer coincides with periods of almost 24 hour daylight, so plant growth can be explosive.


The fall is a herald for winter, there is a drastic freeze of the permafrost, and temperatures decline. This has been an understandable phenomenon for 1000 years, but lately Global Warming is not letting the soil completely freeze. This having an unforeseen impact on the life's of many animals who call the tundra home.


The winter temperatures average about -30 F throughout most of the true Arctic including the North Pole. The coldest weather occurs in northeastern Siberia. There January temperatures average -40 F, and have reached -93 F. Most other parts of Siberia and the sub arctic sections of central Asia, Canada, and central Alaska has an average winter temperatures of about -20 F. The mildest winters occur in the coastal regions of the Pacific Oceans, where January temperatures average about 30 F.


In the Tundra spring is a word that gets used out of habit, the temperature does not have any drastic changes. The only thing that frequently happens as a herald of spring is tree sap. The sap is able to thaw out and be collected

Animals in the Tundra

There are many animals that live in the tundra. Some of these animals include caribou, Ermine, water birds, mosquitoes, polar bears, arctic fox, white wolves, grizzly bears, gray falcons, bald eagles, bumble bees, squirrels, Norway lemmings, shrew, and voles. Ptarmigan, ravens, snowy owls, arctichares, pikas, and pocket gophers are also found in this vast biome. During the harsher winter months the birds tend to migrate south; therefore you may not see many animals during winter.


Arctic tundra animals do not enjoy the luxury of simply heading into thick forests to escape the biting wind. Instead, it is just them vs. vast expanses of treeless tundra. Some, like the Caribou, do head south to enjoy those forests at least part if the year. Animals in the tundra survive thanks to harboring multiple defenses against the paralyzing cold. Many animals have the same life saving adaption. They are fury, they have adapted to the environment and have grown coupes amounts of hair. The Polar bear has hair and blubber to protect it from the cold.

Plants in the tundra

The Tundra has a lot of plant life within this biome. Some common plants include the bearberry, arctic moss, Caribou moss, Diamond leaf willow, Labrador Tea, Pasque Flower, and the Tufted Saxifrage. The animals in the tundra eat these plants to survive and gain energy to stay warm. The plants adapt by growing short and close to the ground to avoid high winds. Hairy stems also keep plants warm in the tundra the bearberry isn't found in any other biome. The bear berry is indigenous to the Tundra and only the Tundra.


The soil is a layer of permafrost throughout Spring and Winter, its frozen for 1327 feet. Only in the summer does it thaw out letting many plants thrive, it also creates many pockets of water that turn into a breeding ground for animals.
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Basic Information

In physical geography, tundra is type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term tundra comes through Russian тундра from the Kildin Sami word tūndâr "uplands", "treeless mountain tract".

Where the tundra is found

The tundra is found all over the world, Alaska, Northern Canada, Russia, Greenland, and Scandinavian