AP Psychology: Chapter three

By: Olivia Thrailkill and Ella Drew

Peer Influence on development

During adolescence, the development of peer groups is a power influence. These peers and peer groups begin a point where adolescence start to see and comprehend the surrounding world outside of their family and the way they were taught by their parents.


Heritability is the extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to their different genes. Inherited Genes is what gives different traits among family members. Heritability is what causes a child to innately do the same thing as their parent, even if they've never seen their parent do it before.
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Twin studies

Twin studies show the importance of environmental and genetic influences on individuals. Twin studies are key in biology and psychology. Since twins share nearly 100% of their genes, they are very important to observe because they allow the study of different environments. Which means that one twin may be different because one has different experiences than the other. It also means that even if they have different environments, they can still be mostly the same because their genetics are so dominant.
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Parent influence on development

Parents have more influence on their childs development than they are probably aware of. Children observe their parents every move from the moment they are able to comprehend things; their parents habits, attitudes, coping mechanisms, etc. Adolescent development is mainly attributed to the way they are raised and the environment they are raised in. And they are more than certaintly going to grow up having the same tendancies, good or bad, that their parents have.
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Cultural influences on development

Culture is the attitudes and behavior characteristic of a particular social group.It influences everyone in many ways, especially children as they grow and develop. Culture is the main thing that influences morals, ideas, and goals. Culture is tied in with society, so it's not just language, family, and different parts of the world. Culture is also trends, fads, and the over all belief system of a community or family.
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Environment is every external influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.

Identical twins

Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two; creating two genetically identical organisms.

Fraternal twins

Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brother and sister, but they share a fetal environment.

Molecular genetics

This is the sub-field of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.

Evolutionary Psychology

The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection. Evolutionary psychologists focus mostly on what makes us so alike as humans.

Natural selection

The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.


In psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.