The role of electrons

exploring Electrons and the role they play in atom

electron shells

Electrons spin around the nucleus on shells A.K.A energy levels which are numbered 1.2.3 and 4 and name K, L, M and N. If we imagine a pea as our nucleus for an atom, the pea sits in the middle of hollow table tennis ball that is the first shell or 'K' shell. the table tennis ball sits inside a tennis ball which is the the L shell (2nd shell). and the tennis ball sits inside a basketball being the M shell (3rd shell) and finally the basketball sits inside a beach ball which is the N shell (fourth and last shells). We can pretend the electrons as being ants running around away from each other, the outside of each ball which acts as the different shells. they would be running away from each other because electrons are a negative charge which repels electrons away from any other electrons. since the K ball/shell is the smallest only 2 ants/electrons could fit on it or else they'll get too close. On the other balls more ants will be able to run around on them because they are bigger.


Ions are atoms which become charged because they are unbalanced in protons and electrons, Atoms are electrically neutral because the number of protons and electrons are the same so they can balance the positive and negative charges. Ions are formed in a chemical reaction because electrons move from atom to atom. there are different charged Ions such as

  • if the atom loses electrons it will become a positive Ion because it has more protons which are positively charged.
  • if the atom Gains more electrons then obviously it as a negative Ion because it is unbalanced with more negatively charged electrons then positively charged protons.

periodic table: groups and periods

valence electrons