Cell Parts!

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Plasma

*Like all other cellular membranes, the plasma membrane consists of both lipids and proteins.

*The plasma membrane is the boundary between the cell and its environment.

*keep things out or to allow things to enter

Cell Wall

* Is a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher plants, it consists mainly of cellulose.

*cell walls made of cellulose are only found around plant cells.

*The cell wall is the tough, usually flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells. It is located outside the cell membrane

*provides these cells with structural support and protection

*also acts as a filtering mechanism.

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Cytoplasm

* The material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.

*The cytoplasm comprises cytosol

* The gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane

* The cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.

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Nucleus

* The central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth.

*nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel

*The nucleus is the very dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom.

* It was discovered in 1911

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Nuclear Membrane

* The double membrane surrounding the nucleus within a cell.

*The nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus with a double membrane with multiple pores.

*The DNA in your cells is protected by a nuclear membrane.

*All eukaryotic cells those found in animals, plants, protists, and fungi have a control center called the nucleus.

* This is where genetic material, or DNA, is stored.

*Surrounding every nucleus is a double-layered membrane called the nuclear membrane or nuclear envelope.

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Nucleolus

* The nucleolus is the largest structure in the nucleus of Eukaryotic cells where it primarily serves as the site of Ribosome synthesis and assembly.

* RNA RiboNucleic Acid

* Is that mysterious round structure we are all taught to draw inside the nucleus of a cell.

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Centrioles

* Centrioles are a very important part of centrosomes, which are involved in organizing microtubules in the cytoplasm.

* The position of the centriole determines the position of the nucleus and plays a crucial role in the spatial arrangement of the cell.

* Every animal-like cell has two small organelles called centrioles.

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Chromatin

* The DNA + histone = chromatin

* The DNA double helix in the cell nucleus is packaged by special proteins termed histones.

*The formed protein/DNA complex is called chromatin.

* The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome.

* The functions of chromatin are to package DNA into a smaller volume to fit in the cell, to strengthen the DNA to allow mitosis and meiosis, and to control gene expression and DNA replication.

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Ribosomes

* The ribosome is a large and complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the primary site of biological protein synthesis.

* Ribosomes link Amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules.

*(Kiddie Definition) Ribosomes - Protein Construction Teams Cells need to make proteins. Enzymes made of proteins are used to help speed up biological processes.

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Golgi Apparatus

* Golgi apparatus or complex, or body, or 'the Golgi is found in all plant and animal cells.

* After the Golgi does its work on the molecules inside the sac, a secretory vesicle is created and released into the cytoplasm. From there, the vesicle moves to the cell membrane and the molecules are released out of the cell.

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

* Rough ER (RER) is involved in some protein production, protein folding, quality control and despatch.

* All eucaryotic cells have an endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

*Its membrane typically constitutes more than half of the total membrane of an average animal cell.

* A continuous membrane system that forms a series of flattened sacs within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell.

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Mitochondria

* A membrane bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells the cells that make up plants, animals, fungi, and many other living organisms.

* They act as the power plants of the cell, are surrounded by two membranes, and have their own genome.

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Chloroplast

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