A Motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, planar board or logic board, or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in computers and other expandable systems. It holds and allows communication between many of the crucial electronic components of a system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals. Unlike a backplane, a motherboard contains significant sub-systems such as the processor and other components.
A hard disk drive (sometimes abbreviated as Hard drive, HD, or HDD) is a device used to permanently store and also retrieve information. There are many variations, but their sizes are generally 3.5" and 2.5" for desktop and laptop computers respectively. A hard drive consists of one or more platters to which data is written using a magnetic head, all inside of an air-sealed casing. Internal hard disks reside in a drive bay, connect to the motherboard using an ATA, SCSI, or SATA cable, and are powered by a connection to the PSU (power supply unit). The images below show the components of a hard drive inside of both desktop and laptop computers. The hard disk was first introduced on September 13, 1956.
As processors, graphics cards, RAM and other components in computers have increased in speed and power consumption, the amount of heat produced by these components as a side-effect of normal operation has also increased. These components need to be kept within a specified temperature range to prevent overheating, instability, malfunction and damage leading to a shortened component lifespan.
A heat sink is an electronic device that incorporates either a fan or a peltier device to keep a hot component such as a processor cool. There are twoheat sink types: active and passive. Active heat sinks utilize power and are usually a fan type or some other peltier cooling device.
A power supply unit (PSU) converts mains AC to low-voltage regulated DC power for the internal components of a computer. Modern personalcomputers universally use a switched-mode power supply. Somepower supplies have a manual selector for input voltage, while others automatically adapt to the supply voltage.
A floppy disk, also called a diskette or just disk, is a disk storage medium composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic carrier lined with fabric that removes dust particles. Floppy disks are read and written by a floppy disk drive (FDD).
Floppy disks, initially as 8-inch (200 mm) media and later in 5¼-inch (133 mm) and 3½-inch (90 mm) sizes, were a ubiquitous form of data storage and exchange from the mid-1970s well into the 2000s.
In computing, an optical disc drive (ODD) is adisk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs.