Dick & Carey

Instructional Design Model

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History & Introduction

The Dick & Carey Instructional Design model was developed by Walt Dick, Lou Carey and James Carey. The Dick & Carey Systems Approach Model was published in 1978 in the book The Systematic Design of Instruction.

The Dick & Carey model was the first of it's kind to create a systematic approach to instruction. This approach is commonly known as the "ADDIE" model. ADDIE is an acronym for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate. The Dick & Carey model implements the ADDIE structure into a linear design format.

Context for Use

Phase One- Identify

Identify the end goal, what is student expected learn? Phase 1 Is much like the Understanding by Design (UBD) curriculum mapping developed by (McTighe 1998) that starts with the end knowledge/skills/dispositions desired, or as Stephen Covey suggests, "Begin with the end in mind."

Phase Two- Instructional, Learners & Context Analysis

Instructional Analysis: What specific information is the learner expected to identify, re-call and complete?

Learners & Context Analysis: Identify your target audience. This will include prerequisite skills, demographics and prior experience that are all directly related to what is being taught.

Phase Three- Performance Objectives

Transform the desired goals into detailed objectives.

Phase Four- Criterion Referenced Tests

An analysis should be completed on your target audience to see if they have the necessary requirements to learn the new skill (pre-test).

Phase Five- Develop Instructional Strategy

What will be implemented to complete the end objective?

Phase Six- Develop and Select Instructional Materials

This phase includes the choice of using existing materials, creating new ones and deciding the role of the instructor.

Phase Seven- Develop/Conduct Formative Evaluation

What instructional materials are in need of improvement? Think of this as a beta-phase.

Phase Eight- Summative Evaluation

This phase studies the effectiveness of the system as a whole! An interesting study by Elizabeth Stage (2007) found what influenced California teachers implemented instruction the most and it turned out to be the released state test items. Thus the embedded assessment items become critical and often become the focus for phase 1.


The model is goal oriented and intended for performance improvement. The Dick & Carey model has an easy to follow linear formula that is proven to work through ADDIE.


Instructional Design procedures are rarely followed linearly. Instructional Designers often jump back and forth between the various phases, which makes the Dick and Carey model a solid guide and not to be followed strictly.