Language Arts 7 the grade
What we've learned this year! By: Maryssa Meaux
Chapter 1: The Sentence
- The sentence is a word or word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a complete thought.
- A sentence fragment is a group of words that looks like a sentence but does not contain both a subject and a verb or does not express a complete thought.
- The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about.
- The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells who or what the sentence is about.
- The complete subject consists of all the words that tell who or what a sentence is about.
- The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject.
- The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject.
- A compound subject consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb.
- A compound verb consists of two or more verb that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same subject.
- A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period.
- An imperative sentence gives a command or a request. Most imperative sentences end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point.
- An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.
- An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point.
( Ex: When was your baseball game? )(interrogative)
( Ex: Our team won the game!)(exclamatory)
Chapter 2: Parts of Speech Overview
- A noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.
- A compound noun is a single noun made up of two or more words used together.
- A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or ideas.
- A common noun names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas and is generally not capitalized.
- A concrete noun names a person, place, or thing that can be perceived by one or more senses ( sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell ).
- An abstract noun names an idea, feeling, a quality, or a characteristic.
- A collective noun is a word that means group.
( Ex: The audience clapped very loud for the actors. )(collective noun- audience)
- A pronoun is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.
- A personal pronoun refers to the one speaking ( first person ), the one spoken ( second person ), or the one spoken about ( third person ).
- A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and is necessary to the meaning of the sentence.
- An intensive pronoun emphasizes a noun or another pronoun and is necessary to the meaning of the sentence.
- A demonstrative pronoun points out a person, place, thing, or idea.
- An interrogative sentence introduces a question.
- An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that may or may not be specifically named.
- A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause.
( Ex: JK Rowling, who wrote Harry Potter, is famous. )(relative pronouns- who)
- An adjective is a word that is used to modify a noun or pronoun.
- ( a, an, the are adjs.) These adjectives are called articles.
- (a, an are called indefinite articles.)
- (The is called the definite article because it refers to someone or something.)
- ( This, that, those can be adj or pro.) When they modify a noun or pronoun, they are demonstrative adjectives.
- When they are used alone, they are called demonstrative pronouns.
- A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun.
( Ex: We bought a Middle Eastern flower pot. )(proper- Middle Eastern)
Chapter 3: Parts of Speech Overview
- A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being.
- An action verb is a verb that expresses physical or mental activity
- A linking verb is a verb that expresses a state of being.
- A helping verb helps the main verb express action or the state of being.
- A transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, place, thing, or idea.
- A intransitive verb expresses an action without the action passing to a receiver or object
( Ex. The people dance quietly. )(intransitive- dance)
- An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjectives, or adverb.
- A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word.
- A conjunction is a word that joins words or word groups.
- A coordinating conjunction joins words or word groups that are used in the same way.
- A correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that join words or word groups that are used in the same way.
- An interjection is a word that expresses emotion.
Chapter 4: Complements
- A complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb.
- A direct object is noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.
- An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that sometimes appears in a sentences containing direct object.
- A subject complement is word or word group in the predicate that identifies or describes the subject
- A predicate nominative is a word or word group that identifies the subject.
- A predicate adjectives is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.
Chapter 5 The Phrase
- A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both verb and its subject.
- A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object
- An adjective phrase modifies a noun or pronoun
- An adverb phrase modifies a verb, an adjective, or adverb.
- A participle is a verb that can be used as an adjective.
- (1) present participles end in -ing
- (2) past participles usually end in -d or -ed. Some past participles are formed irregularly.
- A participle phrase consists of a participle together with its modifiers and comments. The entire phrase is used as an adjective.
- An infinitive is a verb that can be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Most infinitives begin with to
- An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive together with its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase may be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
Chapter 6 The Clause
- A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.
- An independent (or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.
- A subordinate (dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.
- An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun
- An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or adverb.
- A simple sentence contains one independent and subordinate.
- A compound sentence contains two or more independent and no subordinate.
- A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.
( Ex. Out of the plants in our solar system, Jupiter is the largest. )(complex)
- A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.
Chapter 8 Agreement
- Number is the form a word takes ti indicate weather the word is singular or plural.
- A verb should agree in number with its subject.
- (1) Singular subjects take singular verbs.
- (2) plural subjects tale plural verbs.
- The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase following the subject.
- If the subject is the indefinite pronoun all, any, more, most, none, or some, its number may be determined by the object of a prepositional phrase that follows it
- A pronoun that does not refer to a definite person, place, thing, or idea is called an indefinite pronoun.
- The following indefinite pronouns are singular: anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everyone,everybody, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, someone, somebody, and something.
- The following indefinite pronouns are plural: both, few, many, several.
- The indefinite pronouns: all, any, more, most, none, and some, may be able to be either singular or plural, depending on their meaning in a sentence.
- Subjects joined by and usually take a plural verb.
- Singular subjects joined by or or nor take a singular verb.
- When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject nearer the verb.
- A collective noun may be either singular or plural, depending on its meaning in a sentence. A collective noun is singular in form but a group of persons, animals, or things.
- When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure that the verb agrees with it.
- When the subject of a sentence follows part or all of the verb, the word order is said to be inverted. To find the subject of a sentence with an inverted order, restate the sentence in normal subject-verb word order
- Some nouns that are plural in form take singular verbs.
- An expression of an amount may be singular or plural, depending on how it is used.
- Even when plural in form, the title of a creative work, the name of an organisation, or the name of a country or city generally takes a singular verb.
- Don't and Doesn't should agree with their subjects
- A pronoun usually refers to a noun or another pronoun called its antecedent.
- A pronoun should agree in number and gender with its antecedent.
- Use a singular pronoun to refer to anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, or something.
- Use a plural pronoun to refer to both, few, many, or several.
- The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be singular or plural, depending on how they are used in a sentence.
- Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor.
- Use a plural pronoun to refer to two or more antecedents joined by and.
- A pronoun that refers to a collective noun has the same number as the noun.
- An expression of an amount may take a singular or plural pronoun, depending on how the expression is used.
- Even when in plural form, the title of creative work, the name of an organization, or the name of a country or city usually takes a singular pronoun.
Chapter 9 Using Verbs Correctly
- The four basic of a verb are called the principle parts of the verb.
- The principle parts of a verb are based form, the present participle, the past, and the past participle.
( Ex. She has often drawn cartoons. )(past)
( Ex. By Thursday, we will have drawn two more. )(Future)
- A regular verb forms its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form
- An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in some way other than by adding -d or -ed to the base form.
- The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or of the state of being that is expresses by the verb.
- The six types are present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, future perfect.
- Do not change needlessly from one tense to another.
- A verb in an active voice expresses an action done by its subject.
- A verb in a passive voice expresses an action done to its subject.
- The verb sit means "to be seated" or "to rest". The verb set usually means "to place" or "to put".
- The verb rise means "to move upward" or "to lift up". The verb raise means to "to lift something up"
- The verb lie generally means "to recline", "to be in a place", "to remain lying down". The Verb lay means "to put down" or "to place".
Chapter 10 Using pronouns correctly
- Case is the form that a noun or pronoun takes to show its relationship to other words in a sentence.
( Ex. Who bought the vase? )(objective)
( Ex. The Ming vase's new owner is pleased. )(possessive)
- The subject of a verb should be in the nominative case.
- A predicate nominative should be in the nominative case.
- Direct objects and indirect objects of verbs should be in the objective case.
- The object of a preposition should be in the objective case.
- The pronoun who has different forms in the nominative and objective cases. Who is nominative; whom is the objective form.
- Sometimes a pronoun is followed directly by a noun that identifies the pronoun. Such noun is called an appositive.
- Do not use the nonstandard forms hisself and theirselves or theirselves in place of himself and themselves.
Chapter 11 Using correct modifiers
- Adjectives make the meaning of nouns and pronouns more specific.
- Adverbs make the meanings of verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs more specific.
- The three degrees of comparison of modifiers are the positive, the compartive, and the superlative.
- (1) The postive degree is used when at leat one thing is being described.
- (2) The comparative degree is used two things or groups of things are being compared.
- (3) The superlative degree is used when three or more things are being compared.
- Use good to modify a noun or pronoun in most cases. Use well to modify a verb.
- Use adjectives, not adverbs, after linking verbs.
- A double negative is the use of two or more negative words to express one negative idea.
- Place modifying words, phrases, and clauses as close as possible to the words they modify.
- A participle phrase consists of a present participle or past participle and its modifiers and complements.
- An adjective clause modifies a noun or a pronoun.