Language Arts 7 the grade

What we've learned this year! By: Maryssa Meaux

Chapter 1: The Sentence

  • The sentence is a word or word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a complete thought.
( Ex: The girl with the bun likes to draw.)(sentence)
  • A sentence fragment is a group of words that looks like a sentence but does not contain both a subject and a verb or does not express a complete thought.
( Ex: drawing the world. )(sentence fragment)
  • The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about.
( Ex: The runner is already stretched. )(runner- subject)
  • The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells who or what the sentence is about.
( Ex: The young child entered the contest at the track meet. )(young - simple)(The young child- complete)
  • The complete subject consists of all the words that tell who or what a sentence is about.
( Ex: The young child entered the contest at the track meet. )(young - simple)(The young child- complete)
  • The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject.
( Ex: The tree had a baby robin on it. )(had a baby robin on it- predicate)
  • The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject.
( Ex: The cherry tree had lots of flowers on it. )(had- simple predicate)
  • A compound subject consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb.
( Ex: Marcy and Sam went to the movies. )(Marcy and Sam- compound subject)
  • A compound verb consists of two or more verb that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same subject.
( Ex: The movie has been out for a week and I want to go see it. )(Has been out; see- compound verb)
  • A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period.
( Ex: Sally loves to play soccer. )(declarative)
  • An imperative sentence gives a command or a request. Most imperative sentences end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point.
( Ex: Cheer loud at the track meet tomorrow. )( Ex: Stop! )(both- imperative)
  • An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.
( Ex: When was your baseball game? )(interrogative)
  • An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point.

( Ex: When was your baseball game? )(interrogative)

( Ex: Our team won the game!)(exclamatory)

Chapter 2: Parts of Speech Overview

  • A noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.
( Ex: The girl plays piano.)(noun- girl, piano)
  • A compound noun is a single noun made up of two or more words used together.
( Ex: The grand piano was were expensive.)(compound noun- grand piano)
  • A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or ideas.
( Ex: The singer won an Oscar. )(proper noun- Oscar)
  • A common noun names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas and is generally not capitalized.
( Ex: That song is my favorite. )(common- song)
  • A concrete noun names a person, place, or thing that can be perceived by one or more senses ( sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell ).
( Ex: The music put me to sleep. )(concrete noun- music)
  • An abstract noun names an idea, feeling, a quality, or a characteristic.
( Ex: The song had much love. )(abstract noun- love)
  • A collective noun is a word that means group.

( Ex: The audience clapped very loud for the actors. )(collective noun- audience)

  • A pronoun is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.
( Ex: Did you read the book. )(pronoun- you)
  • A personal pronoun refers to the one speaking ( first person ), the one spoken ( second person ), or the one spoken about ( third person ).
( Ex: I bought a new book to read. )(personal pronoun- I)
  • A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and is necessary to the meaning of the sentence.
( Ex: Mandy enjoy herself at the reading group. )(reflexive pronoun- herself)
  • An intensive pronoun emphasizes a noun or another pronoun and is necessary to the meaning of the sentence.
( Ex: I myself read the book. )(intensive pronoun- myself)
  • A demonstrative pronoun points out a person, place, thing, or idea.
( Ex: This is the book I bought for my sister. )(demonstrative pronoun- this)
  • An interrogative sentence introduces a question.
( Ex: What book do you want for Christmas? )(interrogative pronoun- what)
  • An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that may or may not be specifically named.
( Ex: Both girls lost their books. )(indefinite pronoun- both)
  • A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause.

( Ex: JK Rowling, who wrote Harry Potter, is famous. )(relative pronouns- who)

  • An adjective is a word that is used to modify a noun or pronoun.
( Ex: The blue flower smelled very nice. )(adjective- blue)
  • ( a, an, the are adjs.) These adjectives are called articles.
( Ex: The flower pot is new. )(article- The)
  • (a, an are called indefinite articles.)
( Ex: A frog croaked. )(definitive- A)
  • (The is called the definite article because it refers to someone or something.)
( Ex: The wind blew softly. )(definitive- The)
  • ( This, that, those can be adj or pro.) When they modify a noun or pronoun, they are demonstrative adjectives.
( Ex: This flower is mine, and that flower is his. )(demonstrative adjective- this, that)
  • When they are used alone, they are called demonstrative pronouns.
( Ex: This is my garden. )(demonstrative pronoun- this)
  • A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun.

( Ex: We bought a Middle Eastern flower pot. )(proper- Middle Eastern)

Chapter 3: Parts of Speech Overview

  • A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being.
( Ex. We celebrated Julia's birthday yesterday. )(verb-celebrated)
  • An action verb is a verb that expresses physical or mental activity
( Ex. Did you buy the party favors? )(action- buy)
  • A linking verb is a verb that expresses a state of being.
( Ex. The party is tomorrow. )(linking- is)
  • A helping verb helps the main verb express action or the state of being.
( Ex. You should have been at the beach party. )(helping- should have been)
  • A transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, place, thing, or idea.
( Ex. Derrick greeted the party guests. )(transitive- greeted)
  • A intransitive verb expresses an action without the action passing to a receiver or object

( Ex. The people dance quietly. )(intransitive- dance)

  • An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjectives, or adverb.
( Ex. The child ran slowly down the shore. )(adverb- slowly)
  • A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word.
( Ex. The wave glided up the coast. )(preposition- up)
  • A conjunction is a word that joins words or word groups.
  • A coordinating conjunction joins words or word groups that are used in the same way.
( Ex. Jill or Anna went to the beach for summer vacation. )(coordinating- or)
  • A correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that join words or word groups that are used in the same way.
( Ex. Both James and Larry found sand dollars. )(correlative- Both...........and)
  • An interjection is a word that expresses emotion.
( Ex. Wow! The beach was beautiful. )(interjection- wow)

Chapter 4: Complements

  • A complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb.
( Ex. Lance's new kitten was cute. )(complement- cute)
  • A direct object is noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.
( Ex. I saw a abandoned cat at the store. )(DO- cat)
  • An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that sometimes appears in a sentences containing direct object.
( Ex. The pet store owner gave her the grey kitten. )(IO- her)
  • A subject complement is word or word group in the predicate that identifies or describes the subject
( Ex. Was the pet sitter you? )(sub complement- you)
  • A predicate nominative is a word or word group that identifies the subject.
( Ex. The owner of the kitten was she. )(PN- she)
  • A predicate adjectives is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.
( Ex. The kitten's fur was long and soft. )(PA- long; soft)

Chapter 5 The Phrase

  • A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both verb and its subject.
( Ex. The wind howled )(the whole thing is a phrase)
  • A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object
( Ex. The storm surged through the valley. )(prepositional phrase- through the valley)
  • An adjective phrase modifies a noun or pronoun
( Ex. The tornado with the high winds is passing by the house. )(adjective phrase- with high winds)
  • An adverb phrase modifies a verb, an adjective, or adverb.
( Ex. The storm passed at night. )(adverb phrase- at night)
  • A participle is a verb that can be used as an adjective.
  • (1) present participles end in -ing
( Ex. Chasing the snow storm, the storm chasers got nervous. )(present participle- Chasing)
  • (2) past participles usually end in -d or -ed. Some past participles are formed irregularly.
( Ex. We staked on the frozen pond. )(past participle- skated)
  • A participle phrase consists of a participle together with its modifiers and comments. The entire phrase is used as an adjective.
( Ex. The tornado predicted by the meteorologist did not hit our area. )(participle phrase- predicted by the meteorologist)
  • An infinitive is a verb that can be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Most infinitives begin with to
( Ex. My ambition is to follow a tornado. )(infinitive- to follow)
  • An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive together with its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase may be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
( Ex. Are you ready to go to the weather lab. )(infinitive phrase- to go to the weather lab)

Chapter 6 The Clause

  • A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.
  • An independent (or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.
( Ex. The plant was healthy and strong. )(independent clause)
  • A subordinate (dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.
( Ex. If the stem is too short, give it more water. )(subordinate clause- If the stem is too short)
  • An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun
( Ex. The flower that blue petals )(adjective clause)
  • An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or adverb.
( Ex. Because the tree was strong, it did not blow down in the wind. )(adverb clause- because the tree was strong)

Chapter 7

  • A simple sentence contains one independent and subordinate.
( Ex. The stars shone brightly in the sky. )(simple)
  • A compound sentence contains two or more independent and no subordinate.
( Ex. Kaylee wrote about Saturn and Leroy wrote about Jupiter. )(compound)

  • A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.

( Ex. Out of the plants in our solar system, Jupiter is the largest. )(complex)

  • A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.
( Ex. If we could go to other plants, Adam thinks that there would be aliens, but Clary thinks otherwise. )(compound-complex)

Chapter 8 Agreement

  • Number is the form a word takes ti indicate weather the word is singular or plural.
( Ex. turtle- singular; turtles- plural )
  • A verb should agree in number with its subject.
  • (1) Singular subjects take singular verbs.
( Ex. The fish swims around in the tank. )
  • (2) plural subjects tale plural verbs.
( Ex. Sharks swim fast. )
  • The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase following the subject.
( Ex. The purple koi fish in the pond is named Fred. )
  • If the subject is the indefinite pronoun all, any, more, most, none, or some, its number may be determined by the object of a prepositional phrase that follows it
( Ex. Most of the seaweed were long. )
  • A pronoun that does not refer to a definite person, place, thing, or idea is called an indefinite pronoun.
( Ex. anybody, both, them, either, everyone )
  • The following indefinite pronouns are singular: anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everyone,everybody, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, someone, somebody, and something.
( Ex. Each of the jellyfish were put in a tank. )
  • The following indefinite pronouns are plural: both, few, many, several.
( Ex. Few of our neighbors have pet turtles. )


  • The indefinite pronouns: all, any, more, most, none, and some, may be able to be either singular or plural, depending on their meaning in a sentence.
( Ex. All of the animals are happy. )
  • Subjects joined by and usually take a plural verb.
( Ex. Mr. Duffy and his daughter have gone fishing. )
  • Singular subjects joined by or or nor take a singular verb.
( Ex. Neither a starfish or a crab is that big. )
  • When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject nearer the verb.
( Ex. A sandollar or some seashells would make a pretty gift. )
  • A collective noun may be either singular or plural, depending on its meaning in a sentence. A collective noun is singular in form but a group of persons, animals, or things.
( Ex. The class decided to do a lesson on underwater animals. )



  • When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure that the verb agrees with it.
( Ex. Where were the fish. )



  • When the subject of a sentence follows part or all of the verb, the word order is said to be inverted. To find the subject of a sentence with an inverted order, restate the sentence in normal subject-verb word order
( Ex. In the pond swim large goldfish. )
  • Some nouns that are plural in form take singular verbs.
( Ex. Swimming is being taught by Ms. Shelly. )
  • An expression of an amount may be singular or plural, depending on how it is used.
( Ex. Ten dollars is enough for that blue fish. )
  • Even when plural in form, the title of a creative work, the name of an organisation, or the name of a country or city generally takes a singular verb.
( Ex. Island of the blue defines told a story of a young Indian girl. )



  • Don't and Doesn't should agree with their subjects
( Ex. I don't understand. )
  • A pronoun usually refers to a noun or another pronoun called its antecedent.
  • A pronoun should agree in number and gender with its antecedent.
( Ex. Carlotta said that she found a turtle on the side of the road. )
  • Use a singular pronoun to refer to anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, or something.
( Ex. Each of the crabs escaped from its cage. )

  • Use a plural pronoun to refer to both, few, many, or several.
( Ex. Both of the sailors asked their captain for shore leave. )
  • The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be singular or plural, depending on how they are used in a sentence.
( Ex. All of the fish are colorful, aren't they? )
  • Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor.
( Ex. Either Ralph or Carlos will bring his goldfish. )
  • Use a plural pronoun to refer to two or more antecedents joined by and.
( Ex. Isaac and Elena are going to the beach. )

  • A pronoun that refers to a collective noun has the same number as the noun.

( Ex. The workers are feeding the fish. )

  • An expression of an amount may take a singular or plural pronoun, depending on how the expression is used.
( Ex. Two sandollars are broken. )
  • Even when in plural form, the title of creative work, the name of an organization, or the name of a country or city usually takes a singular pronoun.
( Ex. My grandmother, who is from the Maldives, told us of its coral reefs and lagoons. )

Chapter 9 Using Verbs Correctly

  • The four basic of a verb are called the principle parts of the verb.
  • The principle parts of a verb are based form, the present participle, the past, and the past participle.
( Ex. Susan is drawing one now. )(present)

( Ex. She has often drawn cartoons. )(past)

( Ex. By Thursday, we will have drawn two more. )(Future)


  • A regular verb forms its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form
( Ex. Our street used to be quieter. )
  • An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in some way other than by adding -d or -ed to the base form.
  • The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or of the state of being that is expresses by the verb.
( Ex.Yesterday, Randy served lox and bagels for breakfast. )



  • The six types are present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, future perfect.
  • Do not change needlessly from one tense to another.
( Ex. When we go to the movies, we buy some popcorn. )



  • A verb in an active voice expresses an action done by its subject.
( Ex. The pilot instructed us. )
  • A verb in a passive voice expresses an action done to its subject.
( Ex. we were instructed by the pilot. )
  • The verb sit means "to be seated" or "to rest". The verb set usually means "to place" or "to put".
( Ex. Who is sitting on the blanket by the pool. )
  • The verb rise means "to move upward" or "to lift up". The verb raise means to "to lift something up"
( Ex. The fans were rising to sing the national anthem. )



  • The verb lie generally means "to recline", "to be in a place", "to remain lying down". The Verb lay means "to put down" or "to place".
( Ex. the silverware is lying on the table. )

Chapter 10 Using pronouns correctly

  • Case is the form that a noun or pronoun takes to show its relationship to other words in a sentence.
( Ex. That Ming vase is very old. )(nominative)

( Ex. Who bought the vase? )(objective)

( Ex. The Ming vase's new owner is pleased. )(possessive)


  • The subject of a verb should be in the nominative case.
( Ex. He and I mowed the lawns. )



  • A predicate nominative should be in the nominative case.
( Ex. The candidates should have been he and she. )



  • Direct objects and indirect objects of verbs should be in the objective case.
( Ex. Mom called me to the phone. )
  • The object of a preposition should be in the objective case.
( Ex. The secret between him and me. )
  • The pronoun who has different forms in the nominative and objective cases. Who is nominative; whom is the objective form.
( Ex. Who is she? )
  • Sometimes a pronoun is followed directly by a noun that identifies the pronoun. Such noun is called an appositive.
( Ex. On Saturdays, we runners ran to Mount McCabe and back. )
  • Do not use the nonstandard forms hisself and theirselves or theirselves in place of himself and themselves.
( Ex. The secretary voted for himself in the last election. )

Chapter 11 Using correct modifiers

  • Adjectives make the meaning of nouns and pronouns more specific.
( Ex. Andy gave a loud cheer. )
  • Adverbs make the meanings of verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs more specific.
( Ex. Andy cheered loudly. )
  • The three degrees of comparison of modifiers are the positive, the compartive, and the superlative.
  • (1) The postive degree is used when at leat one thing is being described.
( Ex. This suitcase is heavy. )
  • (2) The comparative degree is used two things or groups of things are being compared.
( Ex. My suitcase is heavier than yours. )
  • (3) The superlative degree is used when three or more things are being compared.
( Ex. John's suitcase is the heaviest of all. )
  • Use good to modify a noun or pronoun in most cases. Use well to modify a verb.
( Ex. The weather was good on the day of the match. )
  • Use adjectives, not adverbs, after linking verbs.
( Ex. Henry looked sleepy.
  • A double negative is the use of two or more negative words to express one negative idea.
( Ex. Mary didn't eat no breakfast. )
  • Place modifying words, phrases, and clauses as close as possible to the words they modify.
( Ex. Manual said he would call Janet in the afternoon. )
  • A participle phrase consists of a present participle or past participle and its modifiers and complements.
( Ex. Walking to school, Callie and James found a wallet. )
  • An adjective clause modifies a noun or a pronoun.
( Ex. The Labor Day picnic that we had in the park was fun. )