Geology

Rock Science

Introduction

This is a short poster explaining and giving information about different rocks.


What are rocks?

To geologists, a rock is a natural substance composed of solid crystals of different minerals that have been fused together into a solid lump. The minerals may or may not have been formed at the same time. What matters is that natural processes glued them all together.


There are 3 types of rocks:

  1. Igneous
  2. Metamorphic
  3. Sedimentary


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Igneous rocks

Igneous rocks are rocks that are formed when lava or magma cools down to create hard rocks.


Examples of igneous rocks include basalt, granite, pumice, obsidian, tuff, diorite, gabbro and andesite.


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Metamorphic rocks

Metamorphic rocks are rocks that are formed when Igneous or Sedimentary rocks change after being exposed to extreme heat and pressure without melting.


Examples of metamorphic rocks include anthracite, quartzite, marble, slate, granulite, gneiss and schist.



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Sedimentary rocks

Sedimentary rocks are rocks that are created when elements wear rocks down into tiny particles of dust, sand and soil, which are then compacted and form larger rocks.


Examples of sedimentary rocks include limestone, sandstone, mudstone, greywacke, chalk, coal, claystone and flint.

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Rock cycle

The picture below shows the rock cycle. It includes the 3 main types of rocks, as well as magma and sediments. All rocks can turn into magma by melting, and all rocks can turn into sediment by weathering. Both Igneous and Sedimentary rocks can turn into Metamorphic rocks.


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What might happen to a rock after a million years?

I think that after a million years, a rock could change to become a metamorphic, igneous, or a sedimentary rock. I also predict that it would expand and become bigger or could weather and turn into sediments.

Fact Box

  • Rocks and stones are naturally occurring solids made up of minerals.

  • The Earth's crust is made up of rock.

  • Rocks have been used by humans for millions of years, from early tools and weapons through to various construction materials.

  • There are three different types of rocks based on the way they form, igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.

  • The metamorphic rock marble is formed from the sedimentary rock limestone.

  • The metamorphic rock granulite is formed from the igneous rock basalt.
  • There are over 700 different types of igneous rocks.



Rock videos

The Rock Cycle
Geology Kitchen: The 3 Types of Rocks
Rock and Mineral Identification