The Cardiovascular System


Overall Blood Characteristics

Components of Blood

Erythropoietin controls the production

4.7-5.5 Liters of blood

Erythropoietin controls the production

Neutrophils: 40% to 60%

  • Lymphocytes: 20% to 40%
  • Monocytes: 2% to 8%
  • Eosinophils: 1% to 4%
  • Basophils: 0.5% to 1%
  • Band (young neutrophil): 0% to 3%


:Characteristically a suspended part of the blood

that is 92% water.

:Plasma carries salts and enzymes. Also is used to transport proteins, hormones and nutrients throughout the body to maintain homeostasis.

:Plasma is called the "Gift of Life" and the essential starting materials needed to manufacture therapies that help people with chronic illnesses.

: Donating plasma is the same processes as donating red blood. It is separating by a spinning centrifuge.

(Erythrocytes) Red Blood Cell

: Red blood cells contain hemoglobin which carry O2 to the lungs and the rest of the body.

: In return CO2 will is returned to the body and released by the lungs when exhaling.

: A hematocrit test tests for how many or little blood cells one has.

: A hemoglobin test measures how much hemoglobin is in the blood.

:Polycythemia is a high blood cell count. There is currently no cause but Phlebotomy can be used to extract blood from the body.

: Donating blood requires one to have a high iron content. One must be 110 pounds or more. Type O blood is the most commen type of blood and is in the highest demand. One is hooked up to a machine, inserted with a needle and extracted blood from them. Usually 1 pint id taken from a donor. most donors can donate blood every 56 days but double donors can every 112 days. They will be used after 42 days of donation.

Anemia Types

Anemia is a deficiency in red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood.

  • Iron Deficiency- When the body does not have enough iron in the blood cells, which helps make them. Taking iron supplements can help or eating iron rich food.
  • Hemolytic Anemia- Happens when the blood cells are destroyed before their usual time. Increasing blood cells count by injecting someone with blood.
  • Hemorrhagic Anemia- A reduced amount of O2 delivery to the cells. Also a reduced blood loss. Using IVs to add more blood to the body.
  • Sickle Cell Anemia- When blood cells to be disformed and break down. There is no cure.
  • Pernicious Anemia- A decreasein blood cells when the body cannot absorb vitamin B12. Vitamen B12 injections usually treat it.

(Leukocytes) White Blood Cells

: White blood cells destroy bacteria while others produce antibodies and others help fight malignant bacteria. They help keep our body bacteria free so we can maintain homeostasis.

:Leukopenia is when there is abnormally low number of the five white blood cell types. It can be treated by stimulation of the bone marrow to produce more cells.

: Leukemia is cancer of blood forming tissues which hinders the body from being able fight off diseases and infections. It can be treated by using Induction Maintenance and Consolidation therapies.

:Mononucleosis: Is spread through bodily fluids and occurs in teens. Also caused from the Epstein-Barr virus. Can be treated by getting lots of rest and drinking fluids.

: Multiple Myeloma is the cancer of plasma cells and can be treated by means of chemotherapy, radiations and surgery.

Thrombocytes ( Platelets)

: They are crucial to blood clotting. They help heal open cuts and turn them into scabs so we do not leak too much blood. They, however are not considered blood cells but a megakaryocyte or a large cell.

:Hemophilia is when blood does not clot normally which can be treated with replacement therapy

: Coumadin helps new blood clots from forming and keeps existing blood clots from getting worst and is a blood thinner. Warfin also does the same.

: Heparin prevents blood clots before and after surgery. Also helps prevents clots in the heart and lungs. Also has the same function as Aspirin and is a thinner.

Homeostasis in Blood Clotting

  1. First vascular constriction occurs and limits the blood flow.
  2. Platelets become activated by thrombrin and flood the affected area.
  3. The thrombrin clot and form a mesh to trap blood from being excreted too much.
  4. Next the clot is dissolved by plasmin.


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