What Will Canada Look Like In 2050?

Changes Over Time! By Ajit Purba


In this Smore, I will be talking about Canada's population as years go by, the attributes of immigrants that immigrate to Canada, and problems the First Nations people are facing. I will also be showing how Canada's population will decrease, the amount of immigrants allowed into Canada, and lastly the heritage of First Nations in 2050.

Canada's Current Demographic Situation

In this day, Canada is in stage 4 of the Demographic Transition Stages. Stage 4 means that there is low birth rate, low death rate, higher dependency ratio and a longer life expectancy. The graph shown below shows that the birth rate has been decreasing since 1950, and the death rate has been increasing, showing that the natural increase is becoming lower. This is what is needed in order to get into stage 4 in the Demographic Transition Stages.

Birth and Death rates in Canada from 1926-2056

Another component is that our population in 2013-2014 is that our population is middle aged-old. In the population pyramid below it shows that the largest age group is 45-65, and lesser babies are being born which means we have a natural population.

Population Pyramid
In the graph below, it shows that the number of children per women is decreasing starting from 1966 all the way to 2006. It shows that Canada's natural population is decreasing as less people are being born. It take 2 lovers to make or reproduce a baby, and between those two people they only create 1.5 babies (1-2 babies). This shows that the population would also decrease because more people are dying, and there aren't enough people being born to recreate the same amount of people.

Fertility Rate in Canada 1926-2006

Canada's Current First Nations Situation

When people think of aboriginals the first thoughts are usually hunting, smokers, and headdresses. These are stereotypes! First off, only some tribes wore headdresses and if they did it was mostly in the 1800s. Hunting was one of their main industries as they were skilled at trapping animals. This was in a time though where food had to be hunted and couldn't be bought. First Nations grew tobacco plants and they smoked but in today's time, not all First Nations smoke and if they do it's just like how Americans smoke.

The top three languages First Nations spoke were Anishinaabe, Mi'kmaq, and Cree which totals to almost 190,000 speakers. In some provinces First Nation languages are official!
Nunavut's official lanuages are
1. English
2. French
3. Inuktitut
4. Inuinnaqtun
Northwest Territories Official languages are
1. English
2. French

3. Chipewyn

4. Cree

5. Gwich'in

6. Inuktutit

7. Inuinnaqtun

8. Inuvialaktun

9. North Slavey
10. South Slavey
11. Ticho


Canada's Current Immigration Situation

Canada's natural increase rate has been decreasing over the years, but the population has still been increasing. This is all because of immigration. Every year Canada accepts around 250,000 people. Between 1905-1910, Canada was accepting 400,000 people per year. It seems as if we aren't accepting as many immigrants now, but that is completely FALSE, as proven by the graph below which depicts the amount of immigrants accepted into Canada each year. As you can see, we are accepting less now than in 1910, but the amount of immigrants we accept now, is higher than in the 1940's. We don't have as many serious problems today like war or disease, but even still, we have made huge efforts to increase immigration and population.

Yearly Immigration To Canada
There are 4 categories that immigrants can fall under. People who are immigrating because a loved one lives in another country are called "Family Class Immigrants". People who immigrate that are chosen by the Canadian government based off their jobs or economic value are called "Economic Immigrants". People that are emigrating from their country because they are scared for their life are called "Refugees", and the last category is "Other". Other could mean that they were illegal immigrants. In the graph below it shows where immigrants come from each of the categories the most.

Immigrants Categories from Different Continents
One big factor that people look at immigrants immigrating to Canada are their ability to speak English, French, or other languages. English and French are the official and main languages of Canada.

Canada's Future Demographic Situation

We all already know that Canada is in Stage 4 of the Demographic Transition Model, and the final stage will be in the future. In stage 5, countries will have a low death rate, but an even lower birth rate, resulting in a declining or decreasing natural increase. Well at that point it will be the natural decrease rate, because more people will be dying, than being born.

In 2050, our population pyramid will look entirely different than it is currently. After about 20-30 years, we will have a lot of very old people, and very few people being born. After that, when the aged (Old people) population die off, it will look like a rectangle, which will change our population to stationary, instead of the contracting population we have today in 2014.

In the years to come, Canada will have a much lower fertility rate. We have already stated to see a declining trend, but it will continue to decline until it is 0-1 children per women or couple. Children come with expenses which is why the number of children per women will decrease because people care about luxuries and necessities.

Canada's Future First Nations Situation

In 2050, I think the people will still infer things against First Nations people, because in schools, people are educated on their past. I hope I'm wrong and First Nations people overcome the daunting task of clearing their history, but I just don't think its possible. Unless people get educated on the current First Nations, those inferences will remain in full force.
It is very impressive that 200,000 people know an ancient language but, it won't stay like that. As the years go by and into the future, more and more people will be resorting to English or French to get themselves better jobs and careers. If the First Nations want to keep their languages they should be teaching the languages to kids and new borns.

Canada's Future Immigration Situation

Canada's natural population is going to be decreasing, which means there will be more immigrants. Canada has been trying to keep a steady increase in population every year so they put a limit on the amount of immigrants allowed into Canada, depending on the Natural increase. If the natural increase is low, they bring in more immigrants.

Video of Aging population Leads to More Immigrants


This video shown above shows that with aging population, more people will be immigrating for jobs that require young, talented workers.

If this happens, then qualifications wouldn't be as strict as they are now. They will all be economic class immigrants. Speaking an official language might not be expected from these types of immigrants, but it will still be a bonus as they can work with other Canadian businesses.


In conclusion, Canada's demographics will change from an old and large population, to a decreasing and evenly aged one, Canada will be accepting more immigrants to fill in for the smaller population, and the First Nations culture will be lost in the future due to them not teaching other people or youth.


"Immigration Overview." Canada Facts and Figures. Government of Canada, n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. <http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/pdf/research-stats/facts2012.pdf>.

The Next Boom—Chapter 1: "Population Changes, Baby Boomers and Immigration

" YouTube. YouTube, 1 Nov. 2010. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_lV_jEBuS6w>

"First Nations-Languages." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Nations#Languages>.

Canadian Demographics" Statistics Canada. Governmment of Canada, n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. <http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-003-x/91-003-x2007001-eng.pdf>

"Children per Women" Gapminder, n.d Web. 12 Mar. 2014. <http://www.gapminder.org/data/>