Reconstruction

Rebuilding the war-torn US

President Lincoln's Plan for Reconstruction (Before he was assassinated!)

Ten Percent Plan

* Any southern state can be readmitted to the Union if 10% of it's voters swore an oath of allegiance to the US!

* Voters could also elect delegates to revise the state constitution.

* All southerners would be granted a full pardon (except High-ranking Confederate army officials!)

Lincoln's Assassination

* Lincoln's Vice President replaced him after his death!

* Andrew Johnson was a southerner!

President Johnson's Plan for Reconstruction

* He returned confiscated property to white southerners
* He issued hundreds of pardons to former Confederate officers and government officials
* He undermined the Freedmen's Bureau by ordering it to return all confiscated lands to white landowners
* Johnson also appointed governors to supervise the drafting of new state constitutions and agreed to readmit each state provided it ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery.

Comparison of the two plans!

Why did the two men have different plans?

Compare the two plans!

Why are the plans different?

13th, 14th & 15th Amendments

Say the 13th, 14th & 15th Amendments!

The 4 ways to rebuild our country after the Civil War!

1. How to readmit the Southern states back into the US!

2. How to rebuild the Southern economy!

3. How to provide for the basic needs of former slaves!

4. How to extend US citizenship to former slaves!

How to readmit the Southern states back into the US!

Reconstruction Act

* Divided the Southern States into 5 military districts.

* Supported by the Radical Republicans (Northern Congressmen!)

How to rebuild the Southern economy!

Sharecropping and Tenant Farming

Sharecropping- Designed to replace slaves with African Americans farming land for the plantation owners! The African Americans would own the land given to them by the plantation owners and share their crop with the land owner.

Tenant Farmer- They would pay rent to the landowner and would farm the land.

How to provide for the basic needs of former slaves!

Freedmen's Bureau

* This government agency was created to provide help for former slaves.

*Food, medical care, help with resettlement, establish schools, manage abandoned property and regulate labor.

* MOST people were not given what they were promised!

How to extend US citizenship to former slaves!

14th & 15th Amendments

14th- Granted citizenship to former slaves.

15th- Granted voting rights to former slaves (males only!)

The South's reaction to this rebuilding process!

1. Black Codes- Laws passed in the South to limit the opportunities for African Americans. These laws were hateful.

2. Jim Crow Laws- Laws passed to bypass Federal laws that southerners did not agree with. These were also hateful.

3. Ku Klux Klan- Secret society meant to terrorize not only African Americans but any whites who were supportive of African Americans.

Other Groups of people!

* Scalawags- Southerners who worked with the Republicans! (Seen as traitors!)

* Carpetbaggers- (Named for the luggage they carried!) Northerners who went to the South and became involved in Southern politics.

* Neither group was wanted in the South!

Legislative Acts

Homestead Act

* For a small fee- 160 acres of land was given to adult heads of the family.

* Must improve the land by building a dwelling (house) and plowing the land.

* After 5 years

Morrill Act

* Established at least one college in each state.

* Objective was to teach agriculture, mechanical arts and science

* Federal land sold went to colleges (30,000 acres)

(Started colleges like Texas A & M)

Dawes Act

* Treatment of American Indians as individuals rather than members of tribes.

* Allowed breaking up reservations into small sections.

* Main purpose is to protect Indian property rights.

Civil Rights Act of 1866

granted citizenship to persons born in the United States, except

members of American Indian tribes; first time Congress passed a law protecting racial

minorities

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Impact of the Election of Hiram Rhodes Revel

*He was selected as the first African American senator!

In 1870, the Mississippi state legislature chose Revels to fill a seat in the Senate that had been vacant since the start of the Civil War.

*Although he served only a brief term, Revels was seated as the first African American senator, against the objection of white Southerners.

*As a senator, Revels won notice for speaking out for racial equality

Historic African American congressional representation

*1869-1901 – 20 representatives and 2 senators served, all from the South (1 senator from Louisiana was denied his seat)

*No African Americans served as a representative again until 1929, and none from the

South until 1973

*No African Americans served as a senator again until 1967 with a total of 9 having served

to date

Compromise of 1877

* Informal Compromise between the Republicans and Democrats in Congress.

* Meant to remove Federal troops from the south.

* Appointed one Southern Democrat to President Hayes Administration.

* Construct a second transcontinental Railroad in the South.

* Other legislation to help industrialize the South.