Sociology Semester Final

By: Jayden Reed


1. Socialization- is the cultural process of learning to participate in group life. Socialization begins at birth and continues throughout life.

2. Harry Harlow experiment- he separated infant monkeys from their mothers at birth. he then put the monkeys with artificial monkeys. One of the artificial mother was exposed with a wire. The other mother was warm, and comforting. Even when the mother with the exposed wire was the only source of food, the infant monkeys remained with the soft, worm artificial mother. This led to Harlow's conclude that infant-mother bonding is not the result of feeding.

3. The three major theoretical perspectives provide insights into socialization. Functionalism- examines how socialization helps maintain social institutions.

-Functionalism stresses the ways groups work together to create stable society.

-Examples: Schools, and families. They socialize children by teaching the same basic norms, beliefs, and values.

Conflict theory- focuses on its role in social control.

-Conflict theory views socialization as a way of perpetuating the status quo.

- An example: When people realize and accept their family's social class, they help preserve the current class system.

Symbolic interactionism- is interested in the role individuals and their social relationships play in socialization, so it allows a more complete understanding than the other two.

-Symbolic interactionism- uses a number of key concepts to explain socialization.

-They include: The self-concept, The looking-glass self, significant others, Role taking, The generalized other, and The "me" and the "I."

4. The family and socialization

-The child's first exposure to the world occurs within the family, which is the primary agent of childhood socialization.

-Within the family, the child begins to learn to think and speak; internalize norms, beliefs, and values; form some basic attitudes; develop a capacity for intimate and personal relationships; and acquire a self-image.

-Socialization also depends on social class. Middle class parents typically worry about self-control, and self-expression in their children. On the other hand, working class parents worry about their children staying out of trouble and are more likely to use physical punishment than middle class parents.

5. Religion and Socialization- Sociologists recognize that religion is an important agent of socialization.

- Religion is an agent of socialization is even stronger for people who attend religious services. By attending, children learn the values, morals, and beliefs of their particular religion. Children also learn about group life, such as proper dress and speech.

6. The mass media- are means of communication designed to reach the general population.

- They include things such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines, movies, books, and the Internet.

- The mass media display role models for children to imitate. Learning these role models helps integrate young children into society.

- The mass media also offers children ideas about the values in society.

7. Childhood and Adolescence

-Childhood- is a socially constructed concept.

-Depending on location, culture, and time in history, people held quite different notions of childhood.

-life cycle- the stages of development individuals pass through between birth and death.

Adolescence- is the stage between childhood and adulthood- typically spanning an individual's teenage years.

-The changes that mark adolescence are both physiological and psychological.

-Adolescence experience growth spurts, adding height and weight quickly at the beginning of this life stage.

- Changes in the brain also take place. One of the effects of these changes is an increase in risk-taking behavior.

8. Desocialization and Resocialization

Desocialization- the process by which people give up old norms, values, and attitudes, and behaviors.

-often means the destruction of old-self concepts of personal identity.

Resocialization- the process in which people adopt new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors.

- Rewards of taking a new "Identity" can include: extra food, special responsibilities, or periods of privacy.


1. Auguste Comte- A frenchman, is recognized as the father of sociology.

-positivism- the belief that knowledge should be derived from scientific observation

-social statics- the study of social stability and order

-social dynamics- the study of social change

-He published his theories in a book titled “Positive Philosophy”.

-He also believed that social behavior should be studied scientifically.

2. Harriet Martineau- (1802-1876), an English Woman, is another important figure in the founding of sociology.

-She had lost her sense of taste, smell, and hearing before she reached adulthood.

-Research- investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts.

-She became a popular writer of celebrity status, whose work initially outsold that of Charles Dickens.

- She is most famous for her translation of Comete's Positive Philosophy.

3. Herbert Spencer- (1820-1903), the sole survivor of nine children, was born to an English schoolteacher.

-Did not enjoy the study of Latin, Greek, English or history.

-He compared society to the human body.

-Introduced a theory of social change called “Social Darwinism”, based off of Darwin’s theory of evolution.

4. Karl Marx- (1818-1883), a German Scholar, did not consider himself a sociologist.

-Felt great concern about the poverty and inequality.

-Bourgeoisie- class owning the means for producing wealth.

-Capitalist- person who owns or controls the means for producing wealth.

-Proletariat- working class; those who labor for Bourgeoisie.

-Class conflict- the ongoing struggle between the bourgeoisie (owners) and the proletariat (working) classes

-Marx's was good friends with Friedrich Engels, who helped put Marx's ideas into writing.

5. Émile Durkheim- (1858-1917), was the son of a French rabbi.

-Mechanical solidarity- social dependency based on a widespread consensus of values and beliefs and dependence on tradition and family.

-Organic solidarity- social interdependence based on a high degree of specialization of roles.

-He also wrote “A Study in Sociology”, which was published in 1897.

-Durkheim believes that society is based off of a broad consensus, or agreement, among members of a society.

6. Max Weber- (1864-1920) was the eldest son of a father who was well-to-do German lawyer and politician.

-His most famous book was “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism”, First published in 1904-1905.

-Weber was affected psychologically because of the conflicting values of his parents

Verstehen- understanding social behavior by putting yourself in the places of others.

Rationalization- the mind-set emphasizing knowledge, reason, and planning.

7. Jane Addams- (1860-1935) was best known of the early female social reformers in the United States.

-She attended women's Medical college but had to drop out because of illness.

-She focused on the problems of imbalance in power.

-Addams received the Nobel Piece Prize in 1931- the first sociologist to ever receive this honor.

8. W.E.B. Du Bois- (1868-1963), An African American educator and social activist, attended an integrated high school in Great Barrington, Massachusetts

-In 1895, he was the first African American to receive a doctorate from Harvard University.

-He attacked the “Negro problem”.

Assumption- the act of taking something for granted or supposing.

-He published his findings in "The Philadelphia Negro."


1. The term culture refers to the knowledge, language, values, customs, and physical objects that are passed from generation to generation among members of a group.

-material side- the culture of the United States includes physical objects such as skyscrapers, computers, cell phones, and cars.

-Nonmaterial side- America culture includes: beliefs, rules, customs, family systems, and a capitalist economy.

2. A society is a group of people who live in a defined territory and participate in a common culture.

-All the different elements of culture—knowledge, language, values, customs, and physical objects—form a whole culture that defines that society’s total way of life.

-Human behavior, then, is based on culture. Since people are not born knowing their culture, human cultural behavior must be learned. People develop schemas, or mental outlines based on their experience or memory.

3. Sociobiology is the systematic study of how biology influences human behavior.

- According to Darwin’s theory of evolution, organisms evolve through natural selection. -Through the process of natural selection, plants and animals best suited to an environment survive and reproduce while the rest perish.

4. Norms are rules that define behavior.

-Norms help explain why people in a society or group behave similarly in similar circumstances.

-For example, a young Basarwa girl in Africa might become engaged to a man she has not met in order to strengthen clan bonds.

- Social Norms can change over time.

-William Graham Sumner identified three basic types of norms: folkways, mores, and laws.

5. folkways- Rules that cover customary ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving but lack moral overtones.

-For example, sleeping in a bed instead of sleeping on the floor is not a moral issue; it qualifies as a folkway. Because folkways are not considered vital to group welfare, disapproval of those who break them is not very great.

-Other examples of folkways involve how members of a society adapt to their physical environments. It is extremely common to see people of all ages in Great Britain carrying umbrellas, or people in Sweden wearing shearling coat.

6. Mores are norms of great moral significance and are vital to the well-being of a society.

-Morality deals with conduct related to right and wrong

-Conformity to mores draws strong social approval; violation brings strong disapproval. For example, Americans believe that able-bodied men should work. Able-bodied men who do not work are scorned.

7. The most serious mores are taboos. A taboo is a norm so strong that its violation demands punishment by the group (or, some people think, even the supernatural).

-In India, followers of Hinduism have a taboo forbidding the killing of cows.

-The “mother-in-law” taboo existing in some societies prohibits or severely restricts social contact between a husband and his wife’s mother.

8. Laws are norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials

-fact- Mores are an important source for laws. At one time, the norm against murder was not written down. But as civilization advanced, the norm against murder became formally defined and enforced by public officials.

-Folkways can become mores or laws. Smoking was acceptable behavior to most Americans until the 1970s. Today, many states have laws against smoking in public places

Sociology of Sport

1. AAGPBL- called the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League.

-The Season began in 1943 and ended in 1954.

-Over 600 women played in this league.

-The AAGPBL peaked in attendance during the 1948 season, when ten teams attracted 910,000 paid fans.

2. Rules of AAGPBL

-The rules, strategy and general play were the same.

-Differences were only in the distances between the bases, the distance from the pitching mound to home plate, the size of the ball, and pitching styles.

-Girl's baseball began in 1943 with a 12 inch ball which was pitched underhand a distance of 40 feet. The base paths were 65 feet in length.

-The league quickly adopted a smaller ball in mid-season of 1943, extended pitching distance to 42 feet and base paths to 68 feet.

3. Rules Continued

-Women always have to appear in feminine attire when not actively engaged in practice or playing ball. This regulation continues through the playoffs for all, even though your team is not participating.

4. The Ending of the AAGPBL

-After the War, the league began to fall apart. The President had retired and many teams wanted to have control of their own teams.

-Many of the women needed more experience with the overhand pitching and longer distances.

Revenues fell and the individual teams could not keep up.

-The 1954 season ended with only five teams remaining: Fort Wayne, South Bend, Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, and Rockford.

5. Negro League- Negro League Baseball in The US began in the mid 1880’s and ended in the 1960’s

-Hundreds of African-Americans played in these leagues for over 70 years since they were banned from the MLB.

-There were 24 teams

-Negro Leagues Baseball Museum is located in Kansas City, MO

6. History of the Negro League

-Andrew "Rube" Foster was the one person who helped develop the league and served as the president.

-He is known as "the father of black baseball."

-The first league was known as the "Negro National League."

7. Some of the teams-

Atlanta Black Crackers- They played mostly in the south and played in Birmingham, Nashville, Little Rock, and New Orleans. In 1938, the team captured the second half championship of the League.

Baltimore Black Sox- In the first season, the team's record was 19-30. In 1929, they won more than 70% of their games to capture the American Negro League Championship.

Baltimore Elite Giants- In the 1942 season, they had the team's best record at 37-15, and topped the League.

8. End of Negro League Baseball

-After the integration of professional baseball two factors combined to bring about the collapse of the Negro League. First off, the best players from the Negro League were signed by MLB teams, which weakened the Negro League’s popularity. The interest of black fans were drawn away from the Negro Leagues as many focused their interest on players like Jackie Robinson who got their first opportunities playing in the MLB.

Gender roles

1. Gender roles are a perceived set of behavioral norms usually associated with males and females in a given social group or system. They allow individuals to refer to certain attitudes or behaviors that class a person’s stereotypical identity.

2. Stereotypical male gender roles in movies

-They don’t play a large role in princess movies.

-Males often sing about what it means to be a man.

-The urge that men have to be tough, skilled, suave, and covered with hair.

-Evil characters are often overweight or ugly.

3. Stereotypical female gender roles in movies

-A woman's appearance is valued more than her intellect.

-Women are helpless and in need of protection.

-Women are domestic and likely to marry.

-Overweight women are ugly, unpleasant, and unmarried.

4. President’s Commission of the Status of Women- 1961

-John Kennedy establishes the President’s Commission of the Status of Women and appoints Eleanor Roosevelt as chairwoman.

-The report was documents with substantial discrimination against women in the workplace and made recommendations to improve, hire, and affordable child care.

5.The Feminine Mystique- 1963

-Betty Friedan writes and publishes her influential book “The Feminine Mystique”.

-She describes the dissatisfaction felt by middle-class American housewives with the narrow role imposed on women by society.

-This book later becomes a bestseller.

6. Equal Pay Act- June 10th, 1963 and Civil Rights Act-1964

-Equal Pay Act

-It states that it is illegal for employers to pay when less than what a man would receive for the same job.

-Civil Rights Act

-This bars the discrimination in employment on the basis of race and sex.

It also establishes the EEOC to help investigate complaints and impose penalties.

7. National Organization for Women (NOW)- 1966 and The EEOC- 1968

- This is the largest group in the U.S., NOW seeks to end sexual discrimination, especially in the workplace.

-It rules that Sex-segregated help wanted ads in Newspapers are illegal. It is upheld in 1973 by the Supreme Court, opening the way for women to apply for higher paying jobs.

8. No Fault divorce Law-1969 and ERA- March 22, 1972

-California becomes the first state to adopt a "no fault" divorce law, which allows couples to divorce by mutual consent.

-The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is passed by Congress and sent to the states for ratification. Originally drafted by Alice Paul in 1923, the amendment reads: "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex." The amendment died in 1982 when it failed to achieve ratification by a minimum of 38 states.


They five subjects are similar in many ways. To begin with, all of these subjects are vital for Sociology. You need all of the subjects to get a firm understanding about Sociology. Socialization is like the process of developing into an adult. Culture is similar to Socialization because of the norms and values that are taught. Gender roles and Sport is similar too because of the involvement of both men and women. The founders of Sociology are similar to all of the subjects because they founded all of them.

Topics are applicable to my life

1. Socialization- is the cultural process of learning to participate in group life. Socialization begins at birth and continues throughout life.

-Celebrations of religion and Christmas

-When I was little, all Christmas meant to me was about Santa Claus. As I got older, I began to realize that there is more to Christmas than Santa Claus. It is about the birth of Jesus Christ, the savior of all living things. I also learned that it is about given to other people and teaching the ways of Jesus.

2. The Founders of Sociology

-They are important in many ways. Without the founders, nobody would really understand the true concept of Sociology.

-These founders have made important discoveries and theories to help shape the learning and development of Sociology.

3. Culture- The term culture refers to the knowledge, language, values, customs, and physical objects that are passed from generation to generation among members of a group.

-Culture is important in my life because I am apart of a special group.

-My parents have taught me right from wrong and have taught me the ways of the right customs and values.

4. Sociology of Sport-

-This is important in my life in many ways. Today, both men and women are able to play amature sports and professional sports as well. Back in the day, only men were allowed to play professional sports.

5. Gender roles

- Today, many men and women are treated equal. However, some job for men are higher paying jobs than for women.

-An example- The woman's US soccer team not getting paid as much as the Men's Soccer team.

Gender Roles and Sociology of Sport

These two subjects are related to a current event. Today, many people watch the Woman's US soccer team rather than the Men's soccer team. However, the Men's soccer team is still getting paid more than Woman's soccer team. Many people think that this is unfair and I agree. The women are as good if not better than the men's team. They even won the World cup and still aren't getting paid as enough as they should be. These two subjects are related because of the sport and the different type of gender playing the sport. Also, it is about fairness of the same sport only the men make more than the women do.