Acids and Bases

By: Rayven, and Savannah

Acids

  • The Lewis Model- Substance that can except a pair of non-bonded electrons.
  • The Arrhenious Model- Substance that when it is added to water, it increases the concentration of ions present.
  • Difference between a strong and weak acid? A strong acid has a strong stability and resistance to combining. A weak acid makes it easier to neutralize and eliminate from the body.
  • Examples of a Strong Acid- Sulfuric Acid, Hydrobromic Acid, and Hyrdroiodic Acid.
  • Examples of Weak Acids- Formic, Acetic, Trichloroacetic
  • Chemical and Physical Properties of Acids- Taste, Smell, Texture, Reactivity
  • How do you tell if something is acidic?!?!- if your use litmus paper, or bromothymol blue, or phenol red strips. If it turns red its an acid.

Bases

  • The Lewis Model- Substance that can except a pair of non-bonded electrons.
  • The Arrhenious Model- Substance that when it is added to water, it increases the concentration of ions present.
  • The difference between a strong and weak base?- Its simple, a strong base decreases the hydrogen ion concentration by increasing the hydroxide ion concentration, and a weak bases do not ionize completely when placed in a solution.
  • Examples of Strong Bases- Lithium hydroxide, Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide.
  • Examples of Weak Bases- Ammonia, Lime, Soda Ash.
  • Chemical and Physical Properties- Taste, Smell, Texture, Reactivity
  • How do you know its a base?- You can use bromothymol blue, litmus paper, or phenol red strips, if your test strip comes back blue it is a base.

Reactions

  • Products you get when an acid and base reacts- water, and salt.
  • What's the reaction called?- Neutralization
  • Real life example?- HCl+ NaOH= H2O+ NaCl ( In simple terms, this is salt water :)
  • The substances in this example are as follows: Hydrogen Chloride plus Sodium Hydroxide combines to form water plus Sodium Chloride.

Measurements

  • How to measure the strength of an acid and base- You use the pH scale!
  • What's the pH range for an Acidic, Basic, and Neutral Solution- Acids go from 1-6, Neutral is 7, and Bases are 8-14.

Indicators

  • What's an Acid/Base indicator?- is a substance such as the litmus paper that indicates the degree of acidity or basicity of a solution though color changes.
  • Examples- Litmus paper, bromothymol blue, or phenol red strips.
  • Examples of common products that can be used as an indicator- the bromothymol blue, or phenol red strips.
  • How do they work?- The phenol red strips turn a red-pink color if its an acid, and the bromothymol blue turns blue if its a base.
  • Why do they change color?- it changes color to indicate what type of substance you are testing.

Acid Rain

  • How does Acid Rain Form?- It forms when the pollution in the air and other pollutants are taken into the clouds and then when the rain falls it is now acidic.
  • Damage Acid Rain causes- It slows forest growth, makes it hard for famers to grow food and crops, and causes the trees to die.
  • Where is Acid Rain the greatest in the U.S.A?- New York City.
  • How to improve?- Less cars with exhausts that let out harmful chemicals into the atmosphere, and replace them with electric cars, or hybrids.