Atlantic Hurricane Research Paper
By Joel Mundackal
El Nino is a phenomenon that occurs evey 5 to 10 years during Christmas time. It is a warm ocean current that flows in the pacific.
Normally, winds blow west across the Pacific Ocean, away from Central and South America. As wind-driven warm water moves over the ocean, warm air rises offshore, causing rain to fall. This flowhelps maintain predictable weather patterns from season to season. Every 5 to 10 years the wind dies down. As a result, the surface of the Pacific Ocean gets warmer. Rainfall then tends to fall further to the east. This new weather pattern is known as El Niño.
El Niño plays a major role in hurricane development. During the winter season as the ocean temperatures increase in the Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico, the warm ocean current; El Niño begins to have high air pressure and wind sheer. The rising air and low wind shear creates tropical storms and hurricanes.
The Bermuda High is a high-pressure area that is usually centered in the middle of Bermuda during the spring and summer. This high-pressure area is responsible for the heat waves in the Eastern part of the country. The high migrates east and west, which causes changes in our weather. This sometimes brings in a tropical air mass and lots of moisture. The interaction of the warm moist air moving over the land causes shower and thunderstorms that can pour out many amounts of rain. Two factors cause the air to rise. The friction of the land and the heat from the land causes the air to rise high into the atmosphere; this causes condensation, which then leads to showers and thunderstorms.
The position of the Bermuda High also is a player in the development of hurricanes towards the west and north. If the high is further out in the Atlantic, the odds are that the hurricane will curve and go out to sea. If the high is further west, there is a good chance that the hurricane can impact the East or Gulf Coasts of the United States.
Water Temperature expresses how hot or cold the water is.
Water Temperature is another key to hurricane development. The warmer the water the more vapor comes out, which powers the wind funnel that is moving and rotating the hurricane. If the water is warm enough it will produce a strong winds, which will gather moisture and begin to rotate. That will give you a start to the hurricane. If it is a cold-water temperature the hurricane can vanish or it may not even be able to develop.