The Cardiovascular System


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How Blood Flows

How a Normal Heart Pumps Blood -- The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
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Conduction System

Senatorial node: Also known as the pacemaker. It has special cells that create the electricity that makes your heart beat.
Atrioventricular node: The bridge between the atria and ventricles. Electrical signals pass from the atria down to the ventricles through the A-V node

Bundle of His and its branches: Takes over the impulses from the A-V node and distributes to the ventricular
Purkinje fibers: Purkinje fibers are the final conductive tissue leading the electrical impulses to the deeper tissues of ventricles.

The EKG or ECG tells your heart's electrical activity into line tracings in a paper making waves. It will tell you if your hearts beating healthy or has any problems.

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Arteries: Thick tubes carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to the extremities and organs

Veins: Thinner tubes carrying the deoxygenated blood back to the heart

Capillaries: Fine branches of arteries or veins which supply blood to the bodies extremities

Blood pressure is the force of blood aganist the walls of arteries. Five factors that inflence your blood pressure are; age, physical activity, pregnancy, genetic, and medications.
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The two major sounds heard in the normal heart sound like “lub dub”. The “ lub” is the first heart sound, commonly termed S1. The second sound,” dub” or S2. There is also a third and a fourth heart sound, S3 and S4. They can occur in normal persons or be associated with pathological processes. Because of their cadence or rhythmic timing S3 and S4 are called gallops. Gallops are low frequency sounds that are associated with diastolic filling. The S4 is a late diastolic sound and may be heard in such pathologic states as uncontrolled hypertension.
Normal Heart Sound

Blood Tests

Hematocrit test: indicates whether you have too few or too many red blood

WBC count: measure the number of white blood cells

Platelet count: measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets help the blood clot and are smaller than red or white blood cells.

Erythroblastosis Fetalis

This patient has a disease called erythroblastosis fetalis. It is a life-threatening blood disorder in the fetus or the newborn infant. The patient who is pregnant with a baby whose blood type is incompatible with the baby's, antibodies in the mother's blood may cross the placenta and attack the baby's red blood cells. Red blood cells break part resulting in severe anemia and jaundice. Without treatment it can result in death of the baby.

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With the mother attacking her baby's red blood cells the EKG of the baby will not be affected. It will still have regular waves, but they will be more frequent. Since the baby is trying to get more oxygen the pulse will increase. The blood pressure of the baby will remain normal. The baby's stroke volume will increase because the amount of blood pumped in one contraction will be working faster. Also, the cardiac cycle will be higher since the heart is filling with blood and the blood is pumping out of the heart. The baby's heart sounds will still be beating normal. Erythroblasosis fetalis is causing the hematocrit test to increase a lot because the red blood cells are being attack. In addition, the WBC count will also increase because the white blood cells notice an infection taking place and need to make more to fight it off. Lastly, the platelet count is not being affected in the baby. The treatment to keep the baby alive and stop the red blood cells is intrauterine transfusion or immediate exchange of transfusion after birth.

Work Cited

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Category. "Cardiac Cycle." Biology. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2013. <>.
"Hematocrit test -" Mayo Clinic. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2013. <>.
"What Are The Major Blood Vessels? | LIVESTRONG.COM." LIVESTRONG.COM - Lose Weight & Get Fit with Diet, Nutrition & Fitness Tools | LIVESTRONG.COM. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2013. <>.
"What Is an Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) Test?." WebMD - Better information. Better health.. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2013. <>.

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