Describing The Planets

Science: Big Bang

The Sun

  • One of more than 100 billion stars in our galaxy.
  • The Sun is by far the largest object in the solar system. It contains more than 99.8% of the total mass of the Solar System.
  • Diameter: 1,390,000 km.
    Mass: 1.989e30 kg
    Temperature: 5800 K (surface) 15,600,000 K (core)


  • Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and the eighth largest.
  • Orbit: 57,910,000 km from the sun
  • Diameter: 4,880 km
  • Mass: 3.30e23 kg

  • Mercury has a small magnetic field whose strength is about 1% of Earth's.
  • Mercury has no known satellites.


  • Venus is the second planet from the Sun and the sixth largest.
  • Orbit: 108,200,000 km from Sun
  • Diameter: 12,103.6 km
  • Mass: 4.869e24 kg
  • Venus is sometimes regarded as Earth's sister planet. In some ways they are very similar.
  • There are strong (350 kph) winds at the cloud tops but winds at the surface are very slow, no more than a few kilometers per hour.
  • Venus has no magnetic field, perhaps because of its slow rotation.


  • Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest.
  • Orbit: 149,600,000 km from Sun
  • Diameter: 12,756.3 km
  • Mass: 5.972e24 kg
  • Where people and animals live


  • Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the seventh largest planet
  • Orbit: 227,940,000 km from Sun
  • Diameter: 6,794 km
  • Mass: 6.4219e23 kg
  • Surface area is about the same as the land surface area of Earth


  • Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and by far the largest
  • Orbit: 778,330,000 km from Sun
  • Diameter: 142,984 km
  • Mass: 1.900e27 kg
  • Jupiter probably has a core of rocky material amounting to something like 10 to 15 Earth-masses.
  • dark rings encompass jupiter


  • Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest
  • Orbit: 1,429,400,000 km from Sun
  • Diameter: 120,536 km (equatorial)
  • Mass: 5.68e26 kg
  • The ring particles seem to be composed primarily of water ice


  • Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun and the third largest (by diameter).
  • Uranus is larger in diameter but smaller in mass than Neptune
  • Orbit: 2,870,990,000 km from Sun
  • Diameter: 51,118 km (equatorial)
  • Mass: 8.683e25 kg


  • The planet is dark, cold and whipped by supersonic winds.
  • It is the last of the hydrogen and helium gas giants in our solar system.
  • It is more than 30 times as far from the sun as earth. The planet takes almost 165 earth years to orbit our sun.
  • Neptune has 6 rings.
  • 16 Earth hours is one Neptune day.
  • Has 14 moons
  • 4.5 billion km from the sun