Silver Nitrate & Calcium Chloride

stoichiometry by: Olivia Esh

Balanced Equation

The balanced equation for silver nitrate and calcium chloride, including states of matter is:

2AgNO3(aq) + CaCl2(aq) -----> Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2AgCl(s)

For an equation to be balanced, it must have an equal amount of reactants and products. Since calcium nitrate (product side) has 2 nitrates, silver nitrate (reactant side) must have a coefficient of 2. Also, since calcium chloride (reactant side) has a subscript of 2 for Cl, silver chloride on the product side must also have a coefficient of 2.

Type of reaction, IUPAC name and molar mass for each reactant and products

The type of reaction for silver nitrate and calcium chloride is a double replacement reaction, meaning the first two metals in the reactants replace each other to form two different compounds. The IUPAC name for each reactant and product is:

silver nitrate + calcium chloride ----> calcium nitrate + silver chloride

Molar masses of each reactant and product:

REACTANTS:

AgNO3 (silver nitrate): 169.89 g/mole

CaCl2 (calcium chloride): 110.98 g/mole

PRODUCTS:

AgCl (silver chloride): 143.31 g/mole

Ca(NO3)2 (calcium nitrate): 104.088 g/mole

To find the molar mass of a compound, you must look at the periodic table for each of the elements within the compound, then add the masses together to get a complete molar mass. (Remember, do not include coefficients from the balanced equation when looking for the molar mass!)

Example:

AgCl

Mass of Ag: 107.86 g/mole

Mass of Cl: 35.45 g/mole

107.86 + 35.46 = 143.32

Therefore, the molar mass of AgCl is 143.32 g/mole.

Mole to Mole and Mass to Mass conversions

MOLE TO MOLE:

Given, for mole A, is students birthday (October 20th), 10.2 g of the first reactant, AgNO3.

Then use the coefficients for mole A and mole B to find the answer to the mole to mole conversion.

10.2 (g of AgNO3)* 2 mole(AgCl)/ 2 mole(AgNO3) = 10.2 g/mole


MASS TO MASS:


Use 12.1 as the given for mass A. Then use 1 for mole A, as on top mole A will always have 1, and underneath will be the molar mass of A, found on the periodic table (169.87 g/mole of AgNO3). Then use the coefficients of mole B and mole A in the mass to mass conversion. (1 CaCl2, and 2 AgNO3). Then use the molar mass of B from the periodic table over 1, which is mole B.

12.1 (g of AgNO3)* 1 mole (AgNO3)* 1 mole (CaCl2)* 110.98 (g of CaCl2)/ 169.87 (g of AgNO3)/ 2 mole (AgNO3) / 1 mole = 3.85 g

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limiting and excess reactant

There are 2 equations needed for limiting and excess reactant. Start with the first reactant of the reactant side, AgNO3. In the equation we will use 12.3 grams of each reactant. Whichever reactant ends up with the least amount, is the limiting reactant, the rest are the excess.

silver nitrate: 12.3 (g of AgNO3)* 1 mole (AgNO3)* 2 AgCl/ 169.87 (g of AgNO3)/ 2 AgNO3 = .07g

calcium chloride: 12.3 (g of CaCl2)* 1 mole (CaCl2)* 2 (AgCl)/ 110.98 (CaCl2)/ 1 mole (CaCl) = .22g


Silver nitrate is the limiting reactant, and calcium chloride is the excess.

Theoretical and Percent yield

Theoretical yield is the amount of the reactant that should be expected as an outcome. The theoretical yield for this equation would be .07g because the limiting reaction, silver nitrate turned out to be .07g.

The actual yield is the actual outcome of the equation, which is most likely larger or smaller than the theoretical yield, bringing us to the percent yield, which is the percentage the yield turned out to be either larger or smaller.

12.3 (g of AgCl)/.07 (g of AgCl)*100% = 17571% larger