Roaring 1920's

By: Alejandra Bautista 2 period


Nativism is a policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those immigrants, so the main reason for the rise of nativism was immigration. Over the 1920 some laws that were passed down was because of nativism, for example, "The Emergency Quota Law of 1921" was about limiting immigrants entering the U.S , another one is " Married Women's Act of 1922" which revoked the citizenship of women who married foreigners, and the last one is the same like the first one, "The National Origins Act" reduced the number of immigrants lower to 165,000 where last time it reduce to 350,000 and the U.S Border Patrol was created from this act.

During the 1920, there was a group called the "KKK" also known as the Ku Klux Klan, this group is a white supremacist organization which was founded in 1866, throughout it's notorious history the factions of it's secret fraternal organization have been mostly used on the act of terrorism , murder, lynching, arson, rape, and bombing, and all of that was toward Catholics, Jews, Blacks and organized labor.

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Teapot Dome Scandal

The Teapot Dome Scandal was a a bribery incident that took place in 1921 to 1922 which was during administration President Warren G. Harding ,it was from private oil companies who have low rates without competitive bidding, they were reserve in Wyoming and two other locations in California. Later on,Senator Thomas J. Walsh was convicted of accepting bribes from the private oil companies and he became the first Cabinet member to go to prison in 1922 and 1923. The reason for the Teapot Dome Scandal was because the U.S Navy converted from coal to oil fuel, they had to make sure they have enough fuel available so several oil-producing areas were designated as Naval Oil Reserves.

Warren G. Harding

He was an Ohio Republican, 29th President of the U.S to 1921-1923, even though his term in office was mostly the fraught of the big scandal including Teapot Dome, even thought that happen on his term of office he still had to embrace technology and he was also sensitive to the plights of minorities and women.

The Kellogg-Briand Pact

It's an agreement to outlaw another war, and it was sign on August 27, 1928. It was sometimes called the Pact of Paris because it was sign in the city, it was also part of one of the many international efforts to prevent another World War, but it did little effect from preventing World War 2 or rising of militarism.
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Sacco and Vanzetti

Sacco and Vanzetti were both Italian men who were arrested for murder, the murders were described as two Italian men who escaped with more than $15,000. Even though both men carried guns and also mad false statements upon their arrest, they neither have previous criminal record, and on July 14,1921 they were convicted and sentenced to die. The authorities had failed to come up with any evidence of the stolen money and other evidence against them was later discredited, protest were held in Massachusetts and around the world, and bombs were set off in New York City and in Philadelphia. In August 23, Sacco and Vanzetti were electrocuted.

Schenck vs. United States

The case was about a man named Charles Schenck who was arrested for organizing a protest against the military draft undertaken by the Federal Government. In January 9th 1919 to January 10, Schenck was found guilty for claiming the U.S had sparkled slave-like laws, he even used the 13th Amendment as his main support for the outlaws slavery and force service. He even claimed that the government was censor his writing which they were not allowed to do because it is violating his civil liberties of free speech and free expression were are granted by the United States Constitution, but on March 3rd of 1919 he was guilty.

Palmer Raid

The Palmer Raids were series of raids by the United States Department of Justice, they are intended to capture, arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists from the U.S. The raids plus arrests occurred in November 1919 and January 1920 which was under the leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, more then 500 foreign citizens were deported including a number of leftist leaders, but Palmer's efforts were largely frustrated by officials at the U.S Department of Labor who has authority for deportations and objected to Palmer's methods.

Red Scare

The Red Scare was a promotion of fear of a potential rise of communism or radical leftism, which were used by anti-leftist. There were two Red Scare, the First Red Scare was about worker(socialist) revolution and political radicalism, and the Second Red Scare was mostly focused on national and foreign communists influencing society, infiltrating the federal government, or both.
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John Scopes

The Monkey Trial began when John Thomas Scopes a young high school science teacher in Dayton, was accused of teaching evolution in violation of the Tennessee state law. This law was passed in March which was a misdemeanor punishable by a fine which is to "teach any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals."

Clarence Darrow

He was a lawyer who worked as defense counsel in many dramatic criminal trials, and he was also a public speaker, debater, and miscellaneous writer. Before the Monkey trial he defended Eugene V. Debs who was arrested on federal charge arising from the Pullman strike, he also secured the acquittal of labor leader William D. Haywood who was charged for assassination charges, he then saved Richard Loeb and Nathan Leopold from the death penalty, and he then finally defended John T. Scopes
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William Jennings Bryan

William was the one who gave the "Cross of Gold" speech which won him three presidential nominations, he supported women's suffrage, championed the rights of farmers and labors , and he also believed passionately in majority rule. In July of 1925 he stepped off a train at Dayton ready to fight for a "righteous cause". During the Scopes trial it took a toll on Bryan, he suffered from diabetes and the stifling heat of the courtroom depleted his energy, on the seventh day of the trial Bryan fell into a trap by Clarence Darrow when he was called up to the stand as an expert witness on the bible, and on the final day of the trial the judge pronounced John Scopes guilty, even though William Jennings Bryan won the case it did not look kindly in history and will cast a long shadow in his remarkable career. Five days after the trial Bryan took a nap and never woke up, it triggered an outpouring of grief from the "common" Americans who felt like they lost a greatest champion, a special train carried him to his burial place in Arlington National Cemetery. Historian Paul Boyer once said " Bryan death represented the end of an era, this man who had loomed so large in the American political and cultural landscape for thirty years had now passed from the scene." In 1930 in the memory of William Jennings Bryan, a fundamentalist college began classes in Dayton, Tennessee which accepts students from all over the world .

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Controversial issue

The KKK is a group that promoted white nationalism and Americanism, so during the 1920's the idea of "Americanism" spread and was largely supported by the KKK. The whole idea was maintaining white culture and American concepts, and also it was brought forth from Nativists hatred of immigrants which was the idea of the original Americans who were superior to immigrants. The KKK also supported and at times enforce prohibition, and they also had a lasting impact on society because they are dirty racists in society today and some ideals of the KKK are upheld by these racists.
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Table of Contents

Nativism- Page 3

Politics- Page 4

Court Cases- Page 5

Scopes Monkey trial - Page 6

Innovations, Innovators and Culture- Page 7

Controversial issue- Page 8

Political Cartoon - Page 9