by: Cole S

Overall Blood Characteristics

  • In the average adult body weighing 150-180 lbs, there is approximately 1.2-1.5 gallons of blood
  • supplies oxygen to tissues
  • removes waste
  • regulates body pH and core temperature

How Blood is Made and Where it's Made

  • Blood is made in the red bone marrow in bones
  • It is made from a stem cell
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Blood Composition and Other Characteristics

Plasma is 55% of blood and a combination of platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes make up the other 45%. Also, there is a small percentage of a buffy coat which contains mostly white blood cells.

  • Red blood cells - Also known as erthrocytes, oxygen and carbon dioxide transport.
  • White blood cells - Also known as neutrophil, immune defense
  • Platelets - Also known as thrombocytes, blood clotting
  • Plasma - protein reserve in human body, keeps electrolytes balanced

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  • Plasma protein - include albumins (help thicken and maintain the blood volume), globulins (include antibodies), fibrinogen and prothrombin (necessary for blood clotting)
  • blood serum - plasma minus its clotting factors such as fibrinogen

  • erythrocyte - red blood cells
  • hemoglobin - red pigment in blood that joins with oxygen to form oxyhemoglobin
  • oxyhemoglobin - efficient transport of large quantities of oxygen to body cells
  • carbaminohemoglobin - formed by hemoglobin carrying a small portion of the CO2 carried by the blood

  • leukocytes - white blood cells
  • neutrophils - most numerous of the phagocytes which protect the body from invading microorganisms
  • eosinophils - serve as weak phagocytes, serve as protection against parasites
  • basophils - secrete histamine in peripheral blood, also produce heparin which helps prevent blood from clotting
  • lymphocytes - help protect from infections, function in the immune mechanism
  • monocytes - largest leukocytes, aggressive phagocytes
  • macrophage - specialized monocytes that grow to several times their original size after migrating out of the bloodstream
  • granulocyte has a granule in the cytoplasm of the cell that is easily distinguished when stained, the agranulocyte has no granule

  • thrombocytes - aggregate with thrombin to play a key role in blood clotting
  • prothrombin activator - formed by clotting factors and other factors present in plasma, triggers clotting processes
  • thrombin - formed when prothrombin is converted, reacts with fibrinogen
  • fibrinogen - a normal plasma protein
  • fibrin - fibrous gel, helps form long term seal for damaged blood vessel
  • coagulation - process where blood forms clots
  • thrombus - when a clot stays in the place it is formed
  • thrombosis - condition where a clot stays in the place it is formed
  • embolus - when part of clot dislodges into bloodstream
  • embolism - condition where part of clot dislodges into bloodstream
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